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The history of Mountain Mills…

By Lewis C. Gibbs, Jr.

Around 1835, after the Indians were moving to Indian Territory in Oklahoma, the whites began to buy the land west of Caney Creek, the boundary line.
Armstead Barton was the oldest son of Dr. Hugh Barton, one of ten children. He was also Governor of the Mississippi Territory. In this position he became friend to the Colberts, who were leaders of the Chickasaw Indians. Through this friendship, he came into possession of most of the land in the western part of what is now Colbert County.
His brother, Arthur C. Barton, came into possession of most of the land around Barton, Alabama, or range 13 and township 4. The rest of the land in this area was bought by the Prides, the Thompsons, the Rutlands, W. W. Bayless, Hextor Atkisson, the Gibbs brothers (Alexander and Jack or J. E. Sr.) and the Greenhills.
The Hextor Atkinson family lived near the site of the future Mountain Mill Industry Village. The Bayless family lived about a mile east; the Thompson and Rutland families a mile east and south; the Prides about two miles east and A. C. Barton two miles north.
The Hexton Atkisson family consisted of nine children, eight girls and one boy. Bob Garner married one of the girls. Another girl married three times, Mr. Moore, Mr. Donley, and Mr. Whitley. The son married twice, Susan Danley and Lucy Sherrod. His name was Arthur Atkisson. Two of the sisters never married and they out-lived all of them. They later lived at the James S. Barton home which was owned by John Whitley, a nephew. Not only a landowner, Hextor Atkisson was a Justice of the peace for many years. His wife was named Sally Franklin and was said to be from the same family as Ben Franklin. W. W. Bayless was also a Justice of the peace and a large land owner.

INDUSTRY BEGINS

Capt. J. S. Stickels was from the North and connected with steam boating on the Tennessee River before the War between the States, but fought for the South in the war. He was married to Elizabeth Olds, a niece of Mrs. Hextor Atkisson. It is said that he was a brave and courageous soldier and was a gallant defender of the South. He was born April 19, 1827, and died April 5, 1883. His grave was marked in the fall of 1995 in the Atkisson Cemetery.
After the war was over, J. H. Stickels and James Johnston put in a sawmill near the Mountain Mill Village. This mill was powered by steam. Later they put in a grist mill. It was a practice then to use this machinery on Saturday to grind meal. There were two different engines, run by the same boiler.
At a later date, a foundry and machine shop were installed. James Wright was brought in as a pattern maker and machine shop man. He had been in this business all through the war at Florence, Alabama, near where Mars Hill Bible School is today. All of these operations were successful.
Asa Messenger, publisher of the North Alabamian and other publications was encouraging Southerners to start manufacturing their own goods. This would save the high tariff on raw material shipped to the north and the shipping cost to ship the finished product back.
In 1872 the group of men mentioned above, along with N. F. Cherry and others, organized the Mountain Mill Company. Their purpose was to build a cotton mill to make thread from cotton and maybe cloth and other items also.


N. F. Cherry was born in Hardin County, Tennessee, near Savannah. The ten years before coming to Mountain Mills had been spent in merchandising and steam milling.
The Mountain Mill Company started with seventy-five thousand dollars ($75,000) in stock. A corporation was formed under the laws of Alabama. Shares were sold to local people. It is said that every rich person in the county bought stock in the company.
The factory was built and machinery from New Jersey was bought and installed. It is said that the machinery was used. The building was a three-story brick and we think it was about 100 feet by 200 feet, with boiler room and engine room attached, with about a 100-foot smoke stack. After the machinery was installed they began to hire people to operate the mill.

Mountain Mills Factory in Cherokee, Alabama

Mountain Mills Factory in Cherokee, Alabama

Some of these families are still in this area, the Blankenships, Burrows, Hargetts, Inmans, Keetons and others. These families consisted mostly of girls. Women and children were used a lot in operating the mill. They also built a company store or commissary. Mr. Houston Ramsey was brought in to operate this business. He is referred to in the East Florence story. Homes for the people and a church and school were built. They built one building and used it for church and school. This building is still in use today in the Barton area by a black congregation.


Some of the preachers that preached at Mountain Mill were E. C. Fuqua, J. D. Tant and others. A professor Blaylock was brought in to run the school. Another teacher was E. C. Hamilton.

Edward C. Fuqua
Preacher at Mt Mills Church

A small town of about three hundred people came together around the mill. It was written that there was no need for law enforcement or courts.
In 1874, more money was needed. Twenty-five thousand dollars in bonds was floated with the German National Bank of Memphis, Tennessee, at 10% interest, payable every six months.
The company operated for twelve years, but seemed to be in financial trouble all the time. Miss Nina Leftwich stated in her book “Two Hundred Years in Muscle Shoals” that this was due to the used machinery that was installed when the operation started.
In 1883, the German National Bank foreclosed on the Mountain Mill Company. We have no record of their closing. We assume that W. N. Cherry bought their stock or debt. On April 7, 1883, W. N. Cherry bought out Arthur C. Barton and W. W. Bayless for $9,100.00. Miss Nina Leftwich said it sold for 5% of the original investment.
After this W. N. Cherry formed a partnership with N. F. Cherry and C. N. Brandon. Mr. Brandon was an experienced cotton mill operator. He came out of Cypress mill, a mill near Florence, which had closed. They invested $100,000.00 in capital stock, brought $35,000.00 worth of new machinery, and began operating in a big way. They loaned money to every farmer in the county. We have a copy of many of the loans on crops and stock and equipment. I believe the mill contracted fro the cotton they raised. However, this is not stated on the loans.
Some of the chief clerks who signed some of the loans are E. C. Hamilton, who is our great uncle; John Whitley, who was a grandson of Hextor Atkisson; Mr. Charles Womble, who was the first Probate Judge of Colbert county; and James H. Simpson. Simpson was connected with the mill in its early stages, but was later in business for himself in Tuscumbia, Alabama. He was our great-uncle twice. He married two of our grandfather’s sisters.
The operation continued for about ten years. In 1892, it was decided to move the mill to Florence, Alabama. We have heard several stories about the reason for moving. One states that the company wanted the county to donate 2,000 acres of land. Another says the roads were barely passable in the winter; therefore, they wanted a railroad spur built to the mill.
We know that this route was considered at one time for a railroad through to Russellville, Alabama, by way of Frankfort.
This is the story of Mountain Mill as I see it from my research and word of mouth all my life.
After 1893, the foundry and machine shops were left in place, and perhaps the sawmill and gristmill. Mr. R. E. Blankenship said he helped move the boiler and machinery to the railroad as a young boy. He was born in 1901.
The picture of the school was made about 1895 or later. Some of the people went to Florence while others stayed and did other things. There is nothing at the site now but briars and bushes.

My mother’s family lived in the store house about 1910. We think the Blankenship family lived in it at one time. About 1915, a sawmill company came into the area and used this for headquarters. Mr. Sam Williams ran a store for them. Some of his family are still in this area. Around 1920, this building was moved to Barton, Alabama by Mr. Sam Williams we think. Some time in the 1950’s this building burned. That was the last of Mountain Mills.

Source: ancestry.com, accessed 2011



Colbert County history as reported by Captain Arthur Keller…

as it pertains to Tuscumbia, Alabama in the year 1888.

BY CAPT. A. H. KELLER

This is one of the oldest towns in Alabama, with a history full of interest to those who are the descendants of the pioneers of the Tennessee Valley, as well as to the student, who can find in its pages the record of adventures as thrilling, and achievements as heroic, as any that have been depicted by either historian or novelist.

Memphis & Charleston Caboose - Tuscumbia, AL

Memphis & Charleston Caboose – Tuscumbia, AL (Photo credit: SeeMidTN.com (aka Brent))

This sketch, however, will be confined mainly to chronological events and statistical matters connected with the settlement and development of Tuscumbia and the country immediately surrounding it.

As far back as 1780, the French Colony on the Wabash River established a trading post at the mouth of the Occocoposo, or Cold Water, Creek on the Tennessee River, about one mile from the northern limit of the present site of Tuscumbia. This creek runs through the town, and is the outlet for the immense spring which rises from the earth near the center of the town and flows in a circuitous route to the Tennessee River two miles away. It affords a fine power for mills and factories, and has been utilized as such for many years.

Professor Toumey, in his “Geological History of Alabama,” gives the measurement of this spring at 17,724 cubit feet of water flowing from it per minute, or enough to furnish every person in the United States about four gallons each per day. The temperature is 58 degrees, and although strongly limestone it is pleasant to drink.

At the time of the establishment of the colony alluded to at the mouth of Spring Creek, Nashville was the most important trading station in the Southwest, and was not exempt from hostile incursions by the Indians, who held the country from the Alabama River to the Cumberland. For a number of years depredations by them upon the Cumberland settlements were frequent and destructive. In the early part of 1787, Col. James Robertson organized an expedition, which descended the Cumberland and ascended the Tennessee, as far as the mouth of Duck River, but at this point he was defeated and forced to return. In June, 1787, he started on a second and more successful trip, marching south from Nashville with 130 men to Bainbridge, a small village on the Tennessee, about ten miles from Tuscumbia. Moving from this point westward, along the south bank of the river, he found the Indian village, at or near the mouth of Spring Creek, or Occocoposo, as it was then called. The Indians, and their French allies, retreated to a strong position, a short distance up the creek, where Robertson attacked, and defeated them with heavy loss, and destroyed their village and captured the trading post and a large quantity of supplies.

The French prisoners were taken to Colbert’s Ferry, ten miles below, and allowed to return to the Wabash Colony, Colony Robertson returning to Nashville by land. [See Pickett’s History of Alabama.]

In 1802 General Wilkerson made a treaty with the Chickasaw Indians, whereby he secured from them permission to cut out a wagon road from Natchez, Miss., to Nashville, Tenn., crossing the Tennessee River at Georgetown, twenty miles below Tuscumbia. In 1814 Gen. Andrew Jackson and Col. Benjamin Hawkins were empowered to make treaties with the Indians, with a view to securing some of the vast and fertile territory then held by them. In the fall of 1816 they granted to the United States all the territory from the headwaters of the Coosa westward to Cotton Gin Port, Miss., and thence north to the mouth of Caney (now Cane) Creek on Tennessee River, ten miles below Tuscumbia.

The first white family to settle in Tuscumbia was that of Michael Dickson in 1815. Soon afterward, four of his brothers-in-law, from Smith County, Tenn., Isian McDill, James McMann, ____ Matthews and Hugh Finley, arrived. The following year, 1816, was remarkable for an unprecedented drought, which prevailed all over this territory. Capt. Jno. T. Rather, who died in Tuscumbia a few years ago, when nearly ninety years old, often spoke of the distress of the people on account of the scarcity of breadstuffs at that time. Corn sold at five dollars per bushel. The nearest mills were at Huntsville, Ala., and Mt. Pleasant, Tenn., about seventy miles distant, from whence all of their meal and flour was hauled in wagons.

The first white child born in Tuscumbia was Miss Anna Dickson, who married Dr. W. H. Wheaton, who died in Nashville since the late war. She was living but a short time ago.

Hugh Finley was a blacksmith, and owned the first shop opened in the place. In 1816-17 quite a number of families arrived and settled in the present limits of Tuscumbia, which was then known as Big Spring. Col. James McDonald was afterwards appointed Postmaster for the Big Spring office. He was a distinguished officer of the United States Army, having won distinction in the battles of Chippewa and Lundy’s Lane, and came to Tuscumbia from Knoxville, Tenn. He was joined here by his brother-in-law, David Keller, from the same place, and both moved to Russell’s Valley, remaining two years, when they returned and purchased farms near Tuscumbia. Colonel McDonald died on his farm, “Glencoe,” in 1827, and Mr. Keller, having sold his farm and accepted the office of Superintendent of the Tuscumbia & Decatur Railroad, died ten years later. Mr. Keller and a man named George Miller, from Fayetteville, Tenn., owned the first stocks of goods ever sold in Franklin County, or rather in the territory afterwards embraced in the county. Col. Thomas Hindman, father of Gen. Thos. Hindman, of Confederate fame, brought Mr. Keller’s stocks from Knoxville, and sold it out at York Bluff, on the present site of Sheffield.

In 1817 a battalion of United States soldiers arrived at Tuscumbia, and began the work of cutting out a new wagon road from Nashville, Tenn., to Columbus, Miss., called the Military Road. This was done under General Jackson’s supervision, and the point at which he crossed the Tennessee is now known as Jackson’s Landing, in the limits of Sheffield. About this time General Jackson purchased the large tract of land lying between the river and Tuscumbia and upon which the larger part of Sheffield is now located. In 1816-17, a number of families located at York Bluff, which was laid off by General Coffey in 1820 as a city, with broad and regular streets running north and south and east and west. This town was soon abandoned, its citizens moving to the more prosperous town of Tuscumbia, and had not a house left when Sheffield was formed, to tell where a town had been.

Mr. Miller, who first sold goods at York Bluff moved to Tuscumbia and built the first brick house, now known as the Glendall House on Sixth street, in 1819. He afterwards moved to West Tennessee and died there.

Tuscumbia was surveyed and laid off as a city by General Coffey in 1817. Its limits were a mile and a half east and west and a mile north and south. None of the streets are less than ninety-nine feet wide, and the commons on the margin are much wider, that on the north being 334 feet. These streets and commons were dedicated by the Government for the use of the citizens of Tuscumbia, and the Supreme Court of Alabama has decided that the fee to them is still in the Government and they can not be disposed of by the city authorities.

In March, 1817, Congress passed an act establishing the Territory of Alabama. At that time only seven counties had been organized in the Territory. These were Mobile, Balonni, Washington, Clark, Madison, Limestone and Lauderdale, and they had been organized under the territorial government of Mississippi. Upon the assembling of the Territorial Legislature at the town of St. Stephens, Franklin County was organized, but the act provided that the jurisdiction should not extend beyond Cane Creek, ten miles west of Tuscumbia, that being the boundary line between the lands granted by the Indians and those reserved by them under the treaty of 1816. The lands west of Cane Creek were held by the Indians until they were removed beyond the Mississippi in 1836.

The first superior or circuit court ever held in Franklin County was at the house of William Neeley, on Spring Creek, a few miles southeast of Tuscumbia, September 7, 1818. Obadiah Jones was judge, Henry Miner, district attorney, and Richard Ellis, clerk. The grand jury was composed of William Neeley (foreman), Jacob Humble, William Welch, Andrew Blackmoor, Strange Caltharp, John Bell, Goldman Kimbro, Isaac Pickens, Argyle Taylor, James Wilex, Pryor Landsford, Matthew Maree, Matthew Gwynn, and William Scott. For lack of a room large enough, the court adjourned to the house of Michael Dickson, at Cold Water (Tuscumbia).

Anthony Winston was the first representative from Franklin County, in the Legislature. He was the grandfather of Col. John Anthony Winston, who was Governor of the State afterward. He was raised in Tuscumbia. Robert B. Lindsay, Esq., of this place, a native of Scotland, and a brother-in-law of Governor Winston, was elected Governor of the State in 1870. Tuscumbia was also the former home, if not the birthplace, of two United States senators. Robert Ransom, the father of Senator Matt Ransom, of North Carolina, was one of the early settlers of Tuscumbia, and opened the hotel called the Franklin House.

Thomas Hereford, father of the West Virginia ex-Senator Hereford, was also a hotel keeper here, and was proprietor of the Mansion House, near the Big Spring.

Ex-Senator Henry S. Foote also commenced his career here as a lawyer and editor, and fought a duel with Edmund Winston, an uncle of Governor Winston. Tuscumbia has also had a representative in the lower house of Congress, in the person of Major Joseph H. Sloss, now of Huntsville.

Upon the assembling of the first Legislature of the State, at Huntsville, on the first Monday in October, 1819, a bill was passed, incorporating the town of Occocoposo (now Tuscumbia). Thomas Limerick was appointed mayor, with Philip G. Godley, Micajah Tarrer, Abram W. Bell, and Littleton Johnson, aldermen. At the next session of the Legislature, the name of the town was changed to Big Spring, and, the following year, to Tuscumbia, after a celebrated chief of the Chickasaws.

The first railroad that was built west of the Alleghanies was that from Tuscumbia to the Tennessee River. It was commenced in 1831 and finished in 1832, and was two and one-eighth miles in length. In 1834 it was merged into the Tuscumbia & Decatur Railroad. For twenty-five years after this road was built there was an immense trade done with New Orleans by the river. Magnificent steamers ran to that place, some of the carrying 6,000 bales of cotton. They were palatial in their appointments and accommodations for passengers. Parties in search of pleasure could find no pleasanter nor more enjoyable pastime than an excursion on one of these elegant boats to the Crescent City. Other steamers ran regularly, as they now do, to the cities on the Ohio and to St. Louis; but the New Orleans trade was broken up soon after the completion of the Memphis & Charleston Road in 1857, which road bought the Tuscumbia & Decatur Road, and abandoned the branch to the Tuscumbia Landing.

For a number of years previous to the great financial crisis in 1837, Tuscumbia did a large wholesale business. Most of this was done in two rows of brick storehouses known as “Commercial” and “Planters’ Row.” The latter was destroyed by fire about the year 1837. The former is still standing, all of the stores being occupied and in a good state of preservation. A street railway from the depot to Main and Sixth streets, for the delivery of freights, was built in 1834.

Until the completion of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad the Tuscumbia postoffice was a distributing office, and probably the largest and most important from Nashville to New Orleans. A number of state lines converged here, which were owned by such veteran stagers as Patrick, Ficklin, Chichester, and others. The immense warehouses at the Tuscumbia Landing, which were constructed of stone and brick, were burned in 1862 by Turchin’s Brigade of Mitchell’s Division of Federal Troops.

In its former and better days, probably no town of its population in the South had more wealth in its immediate vicinity; but that did but little towards building up the town. The planters bought their supplies in New Orleans and Louisville, and sent their children abroad to be educated, leaving only the poorer classes to do their trading at home.

In the fearful struggle between the North and the South—1861-5—there was no part of the South more completely devastated than was the beautiful Tennessee Valley. Tuscumbia was in the center of the fiery, desolating track of the armies of both sides. Large blocks of brick stores and many private houses were destroyed and condemned. Cavalry horses roamed at will through grounds that were formerly the pride of their owners. Upward of thirty of Tuscumbia’s young men were killed, and for years after the sound of battle had died away she sat on the ashes of desolation, waiting for the dawn of a better day, which, although long delayed, has come. The giant young city of Sheffield has stretched her limits to within half a mile of her gates, and she has caught the contagion of progress and enterprise, and within the last two years has doubled her population. She is experiencing some of the doubtful effects of a hot-house boom, but observant and far-seeing men recognize the fact that she has every natural advantage that any other place in Northern Alabama has, and that which money can never secure. Her society is as good as can be found anywhere. She has churches of all denominations and first rate schools. The Deshler Female Institute stands in the front rank of Southern schools. It stands as a monument to the memory of Brig. Gen. James Deshler, of Tuscumbia, who was killed at the battle of Chickamauga. The sum of six thousand dollars has been voted by the City Council to enlarge the free school for white males, and the rapidly increasing revenue from taxes will amply justify the expenditure, and support the school.

Tuscumbia challenges comparison with any town in the South as to its healthfulness and exemption from epidemics.

An examination of the tables of mortality for the last twenty years will not show an excess of one per cent, per annum, as the death rate, including both black and white.

Where parties desire to engage in business at Sheffield, they can reside at Tuscumbia and avail themselves of the convenience of two “dummy” lines to reach their business in a few minutes. Real estate, although greatly enhanced recently, is still comparatively cheap. A water works company has been organized to supply East Sheffield and Tuscumbia from the spring, and gas or electricity will speedily be introduced to light up the streets.

CHURCHES.

The Presbyterian Church.—This church was organized in 1824, by Rev. Dr. Blackburn, of Frankfort, Ky., and the church building now standing was commenced and completed in 1826-7. For several years the large frame building near the spring was used for church services.

Rev. Dr. Campbell was the first pastor of the church, and Messrs. Arthur Beatty and James Elliott were the original elders, with Susan Winston, Elizabeth Johnson, Ann Beatty, A. W. Mitchell, Eliza Mitchell, and Sarah Mitchell as members. Soon after this Rev. G. W. Ashbridge, of Philadelphia, Pa., took charge of the church, which received many additions from this time own.

Mr. Ashbridge was pastor from 1827 to 1830; Mr. Arnold was pastor from January 1, 1831, to June, 1831; james Weatherby was pastor from 1831 to 1837; J. O. Steadman was pastor from 1837 to 1845; N. A. Penland was pastor from 1845 to 1852; C. Foster Williams was pastor from 1853 to 1855; Abram Kline was pastor from 1856 to 1860; B. N. Sawtelle was pastor from 1861 to 1872; Mr. Brown was pastor from January, 1873 to June, 1873; Jorace P. Smith was pastor from 1873 to 1877; James G. Lane was pastor from 1878 to the present time. Messrs. Sawtelle and Smith died during their pastorate.

In 1828 a Presbyterian Camp-meeting was held near LaGrange, Ala., and was largely attended, and a great revival took place.

During Dr. Steadman’s pastorate there was a series of meetings held in the church by Rev. Daniel Baker, of Texas, resulting in a great religious awakening; also another in 1848 by Rev. Dr. Hall, and still another several years ago, when Mr. Lane was aided by Rev. J. W. Hoyte, and many additions were made to the membership.

The Baptist Church.—This church was established in 1823, Elders J. Davis and Jeremiah Burns composing the Presbytery. J. Burns was pastor until 1832. John L. Townes was the next pastor, and filled the pulpit ten or twelve years. He was succeeded by R. B. Burleson, and he by Jackson Gunn. Rev. james Shackleford and his son-in-law, C. W. Hare, have filled the place since Mr. Gunn’s pastorate.

The church building was erected by the Campbellites, or Christians, mainly through the personal efforts of Dr. W. H. Wharton, but it was not paid for, and the contractor. W. H. Patterson, sold his claim to George W. Carroll, who sold it to Edmund Elliott, a member of the Baptist Church. Through him the title passed to his church.

The Methodist Church was organized in 1822 by Thomas Strongfield, then stationed at Huntsville.

The first Quarterly Conference was held March 13, 1824. Alexander Sale was presiding elder, and David Owen and James Smith were local preachers; W. S. Jones was steward, and Richard Thompson class leader. In this year Rufus Ledbetter was assigned to the Franklin Circuit.

In 1826 Finch P. Scruggs had charge of the Circuit. He died in Holly Springs, Miss., in 1881. At that time J. B. McFerrin, who died in Nashville a year or two ago, and who was editor of the Christian Advocate, and author of a work called “Methodism in Tennessee,” was a young preacher at this place. Mayor James Lockhart was an earnest and influential member of the church at that day, and it is said that he paid one-half of the expenses of it. Mr. McFerrin, aided by John Sutherland and Mr. Haynie, raised the money to erect the present building, which was commenced in 1826. Edward Stegar did the brick and Nelson Anderson the wood work. The first sermon was preached in the church by John Haynie in May, 1827.

Rev. Mr. Shoemaker is the present incumbent, and the membership is about 250, being the largest in town, except that of the colored Baptists, which is over 500. During the pastorate of Rev. F. A. Owen, in 1828, the largest revival ever known in the church took place.

St. John’s (Episcopal) Church. This church was built in 1852, mainly by Dr. William H. Newsum, who died in February, 1862. He donated the lot upon which it stands, and contributed more to build the house than any one else.

The Rt. Rev. N. H. Cobbs was then bishop of the diocese, and his son, Rev. R. A. Cobbs, was the first rector, and remained in charge six years. The rite of confirmation in this church was administered for the first time on November 14, 1852, when six persons were presented by the rector.

Upon the occupation of Tuscumbia by the Federal Army in 1862, they camped in this church and destroyed the large part of the register, in consequence of which a complete and accurate history of it can not be given to include the period between 1858 and 1866. Rev. George White, the venerable rector of Calvary Church, Memphis, Tenn., lately deceased, Rev. W. H. Thomas, of Maryland, and Rev. Mr. Whiteside were rectors during that period. On April 1, 1886, Rev. J. B. Gray, now of Washington City, took charge of the parish. At that time there were only fourteen communicants, some having moved away and others having died. Rev. T. J. Beard, now of Birmingham, was next in charge and he was succeeded by Rev. Peter Wager, who remained six years.

Rev. B. F. Mower came to the south pastorate of the Tuscumbia and Florence churches in June 1878, and resigned in October 1887. The church building was much injured by the cyclone of November 22, 1874, and Mr. F. D. Hodgkins, his wife and four children were killed at the same time. Mr. Hodgkins was superintendent of the Sunday school of this church. Two handsome memorial windows in the church attest the loving remembrance in which they were held. The three chancel windows are memorials to Dr. W. H. Newsum, the founder of the church, and to his two sons, William O. and Alexander M. The former was killed at the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, and the latter died of yellow fever contracted in Memphis in 1878. There are also memorial windows for Mr. John Curry, and Mrs. Lou McFarland, Mrs. Emma Eggleston and Mrs. Maria Hicks. These windows are of stained glass, and the interior of the church presents quite a handsome appearance. This church is in the diocese of Bishop R. H. Wilmer, whose first official act in the church was the confirmation of a class of 12, presented by Rev. J. B. Gray, March 24, 1867.

Rev. Mr. Phillips, of Baltimore, has recently taken charge as rector.

The Catholic Church.—The commencement of Catholicity in Tuscumbia is associated with two families of the great Celtic branch of the commonwealth of nations. One was an Irish family, the other French. The name of the former is no longer anything more than a local reminiscence; the latter is still identified with all the active enterprises—religious, educational and social—of the growing town and its vicinity. Far from the influences attaching to the environment of the house of worship, and the accustomed and established services of religion, the heads of those two families, Mr. John Baxter and Dr. William Desprez, exhibited in their lives the teachings of their faith and how deep were the roots of their early religious training. Mr. John Baxter was born in Ireland and came early to this country. He died of apoplexy in 1874. A son of his, John B. Baxter, lives in New York. Dr. Desprez was born in Paris in 1806. He lived some years in Ireland and came subsequently to this country. He died in Tuscumbia of yellow fever during an epidemic of that disease, in October, 1878. He was a man of most upright character and sincere piety. He accomplished what is found by experience to be the most difficult, albeit the most important of all the duties of a parent; he educated his children so thoroughly in the knowledge and obligations of religion that they and their children are to-day [sic] the most prominent and edifying in its observance. Dr. Desprez married an Irish Presbyterian lady, sincerely and earnestly attached to her own faith, but who, seeing what a potent factor Catholic doctrine was in moulding her husband’s character and inspiring his conduct, could with difficulty believe that faith to be wrong, and consequently seconded his efforts in the training of their children in the religion which gave lustre to his own life. Shortly after the death of her husband, Mrs. Desprez embraced the Catholic faith. She still lives, surrounded by her children and grandchildren, honored and respected by her neighbors.

The first Catholic Church was built in 1869, through the exertions of Dr. Desprez and Mr. Baxter, assisted very liberally by the non-Catholic portion of the community. The site upon which it was erected was donated by Mr. Baxter. It was solemnly dedicated, under the title of “Our Lady of the Sacred Heart,” on the 30th day of September, 1869, by the Rt. Rev. John Quinlan, Bishop of Mobile, assisted by several priests, and attended by a large concourse of people. Rev. Father John B. bassen, who is at present pastor of Pensacola, Fla., was the first pastor of the young community. This church was never fully completed, and it was destroyed by the tornado which did so much damage to the town in November, 1874. Father Baasen again built a small temporary chapel, still standing, and now used as a store-room by the Benedictine Sisters, where the people worshiped until 1878. In that year, the Rt. Rev. Boniface Wimmer, Abbot of the Benedictine Order in Pennsylvania, purchased from Father Baasen the house and property situated at the eastern extremity of the town. Rev. Matthew Sturenberg, O. S. B., was sent by the Abbot to take charge of the congregation. By his exertions a new church was erected, and, on the 8th of August, 1880, was solemnly consecrated, under the same title as the old one, by Bishop Quinlan, assisted by Rev. Benedict Menges, O. S. B., and Rev. Joseph Keeler, O. S. B. In the evening of the same day, the bell of the church was blessed by the Bishop.

On February 24th, of the following year, four Benedictine Sisters arrived, and have since conducted the parochial school. They have also kept a few children as boarders. Their accommodation for this class of scholars has been and is still very limited, but the increasing demand will necessitate the erection of more extensive buildings. The Catholic congregation of Tuscumbia is increasing. There are two masses every Sunday, at 8 and 10 o’clock, and vespers and benediction in the afternoon at three o’clock. Every morning there is mass at 7:30 o’clock, at which the children of the parochial school attend. The Benedictines are established in perpetuum in the two counties of Colbert and Lauderdale, and, besides Tuscumbia, have churches and stations in St. Florian, Florence, Sheffield, Decatur, Huntsville, Cullman, Hanceville, Dickson, Courtland, Moulton and some minor places. They are hard workers, and self-denying men. The character of the men sent on these southern and arduous missions may be inferred from the fact that, when the Right Rev. Abbott Wimmer, a most ardent friend of the South and of Southern missions, died, the Pastor of Tuscumbia, Rev. Andrew Hinterach, Order of Saint Benedictine, was chosen as his successor to govern one of the most extensive religious Orders in America. Reverend Oswald Moosmuller, Order of Saint Benedictine, pastor of Cullman has been appointed Prior of the head house of the Order in Pennsylvania. He is the founder of the Industrial School for Colored Boys in Skidaway Island, near Savannah, Ga. By the product of his own literary labors and without collecting a cent, except two or three times having an innocent “strawberry festival,” which brought not much, he has accomplished what perhaps no other priest in America has ever done. He has built three churches; one at Skidaway for the colored boys and people of the island, and two at Savannah, one for white and the other for colored Catholics. Rev. Benedict Menges, Order of Saint Benedictine, for ten years identified with the missions of Alabama, has recently been appointed Superior of those missions, and will shortly reside in Tuscumbia.

The development of the mineral resources and the growing industries of North Alabama will necessarily induce immigration and create a commensurate demand for educational facilities, and it is the intention of the Benedictines, as soon as circumstances will permit, to select a suitable site for a college, in which the youth of our own and neighboring States may, at little cost, receive an education to fit them for the positions and callings which may offer, and enable them to contribute to the future material and moral well-being of our city and State.

SCHOOLS.

The Deshler Female Institute is a handsome two story brick building on Main street, located in the center of the block or square which includes the residence of the late David Deshler, who bequeathed the entire property as a site for a female school. The building, which cost about $12,000, was destroyed by a cyclone in 1875, was rebuilt, and has been well patronized and is now in a flourishing condition under the management of Mr. Dell. It is called “The Deshler Institute,” in honor of General James Deshler, who was a native of  Tuscumbia and a graduate of West Point, and was killed in the late war at the battle of Chickamauga.

The city council have recently appropriated $6,000 for the benefit of the public male school for the whites, which will put it on a good footing.

In addition to the above there are several smaller private schools.

Source: This is a reprint from Northern Alabama Historical and Biographical Illustrated 1888 Smith & DeLand, Birmingham, Ala.,VII.  Sheffield, by William Garrett Brown.


All family lineages seem to lead through southern Tennessee at some point in time…

Fayetteville Town Square south side

Fayetteville Town Square south side (Photo credit: SeeMidTN.com (aka Brent))

that also are situated in northern Alabama and sometimes northern Mississippi. In this reprint of Goodspeed’s History of Lincoln County, I can find some of my family surnames. I can also spot some surnames of family that is related to other Shoals residents.  This account of the people and history of Lincoln County, Tennessee was published in 1886. It is a fascinating read even if only for a glimpse back in to the past.

                                                   LINCOLN COUNTY

LINCOLN COUNTY is bounded on the north by the counties of Marshall, Bedford, and Moore; on the east by Moore and Franklin; on the south by the State of Alabama; and on the west by Giles County. It lies almost wholly within the central basin of Middle Tennessee. The geological situation of the county is about equally divided between the siliceous group of the lower Carboniferous formation, and the Nashville group of the Silurian formation. On the line of railroad may be seen large quantities of black shale, which is so impregnated with petroleum or bitumen that it will sustain for a month a fire when kindled on it. This black shale is also rich in sulphuret of iron, by the decomposition of which copperas and alum are formed. It easily disintegrates upon exposure and is valueless except for the manufacture of the salts mentioned. Many of the limestone rocks are but aggregations of fossil remains. A few miles east of Fayetteville is a quarry where a very fair article of reddish variegated marble is found. This marble is sometimes injured by particles of iron pyrites. The county is divided into two almost equal parts by the Elk River, with which its numerous tributaries affords it excellent water facilities. The streams which enter this river from the north are Bradshaw Creek, Swan Creek, Cane Creek, Norris Creek, Mulberry Creek, Roundtree Creek, Tucker Creek and Farris Creek. Those from the south are Shelton Creek, Duke Creek, Stewart Creek, Wells Creek, Coldwater Creek, and Kelley Creek. Between Elk River and the Alabama line is a belt of high land which is the watershed between Elk River and the Tennessee. This watershed embraces a strip about eight miles wide and includes nearly one-third of the county. It is an exceedingly level high plateau and is not well drained. The sub-soil a pale yellowish clay porous and leachy except in swamps where the clay is bluish. However, a few spots are found with a good red clay subsoil, and when this is found, lands are rated higher. No limestone is seen on this plateau and the main vegetation is wild growth.

The remainder of the county comprises spacious valleys, alternating with productive hills and ridges. Upon some of the hills however, the loose limestone lies in such abundance as to preclude cultivation. The valleys of Elk River and Cane Creek will average a mile in width, and the latter is probably fifteen miles long. The land in these two valleys is as productive as any in the State. Many knolls near Elk River are upraised alluvium. An abundance and a general variety of timber grows in the county. It is mainly of the following varieties: Linn, Buckeye, hickory, poplar, box elder, black walnut, wild cherry, black locust, chestnut, beech, gum, dogwood, ironwood, horn beam, sugar tree, hackberry, cedar and elm.

As early as 1784 land explorers passed through this section, and some surveys were made and grants issued prior to 1790. North Caroline grants for land in this country were issued to John Hodge, Robert Walker and Jesse Comb in 1793. There are also land grants recorded in the office of Lincoln County Register, bearing date of 1794, to the following persons: William Smith, Elizabeth W. Lewis, Ezekiel Norris, William Edmonson, Alexander Green, Thomas Perry, Thomas Edmonson, Mathew Buchanan, Mathew McClure, Andrew Green and John Steele. In the spring of 1806 James Bright, at the head of a surveying party, passed where Fayetteville now stands, striking Elk River near the mouth of Nelson Creek. He found a very rank growth of cane and occasionally discovered Indian trails. Near Fayetteville he found a deposit of periwinkle and muscle shells, giving evidence of an Indian village site, and by some it is supposed that this was the village in which De Soto camped through the winter of 1540-41: This supposition has recently been strengthened by the finding of a coin bearing the inscription of the Caesars.

It is impossible to tell who first settled within the present bounds of Lincoln County. The first settlers are now all in their graves and many have no descendants in the county.. In the fall of 1806 Ezekiel Norris settled on his grant of 1,280 acres of land at the mouth of Norris Creek, and this creek is all that now bears his name in the county. He was a shrewd man. Being led to donate 100 acres of land for the county seat under the false representation that other parties had made the same offer, he afterward sued the county and recovered $700 for the land. He was probably the first permanent white settler in the county.

James Bright also became a citizen of the county, and many deeds are recorded transferring land from him to other parties. For twenty-five years he was clerk of the circuit court and was clerk and master of the chancery court for a term of years. John Greer, a very wealthy man, settled near the mouth of Cane Creek on his large tract of land. He took interest in organizing the county and in conducting the public affairs afterward He was once general of the militia. He erected a valuable mill for those days on Elk River, two miles from Fayetteville.

Joseph Greer settled on his vast domain on Cane Creek near Petersburg. He was a giant in stature, standing six feet seven inches and well built proportionately. He was one of the forty gallant defenders of Watauga Station in 1769. He was also a hero of King s Mountain, and it was he who bore the news of that splendid victory to Congress, then sitting in Philadelphia. He dressed in the style of the old aristocratic Virginia gentleman. Thomas Leonard, Hugh M. Blake, Jesse Riggs, Peter Luna, James Blakemore, Capt. William Crunk and Ezekial March were also settlers on Cane Creek in the first and second decades of this century. Crunk and Blakemore were noted for their social qualities, and dances were frequent at their homes. On Swan Creek, N. G. Pinson, Joel Pinson and Wright Williams were prominent first cane cutters, and men who bore their share of the load in administering public affairs. In what is now embraced in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Civil Districts the first settlements were made by James McCormick, John Anderson, Henry Taylor and Richard Wyatt. On Norris Creek early homes were made by Fielden MacDaniel, Moses Hardin, William Edmonson, John Ray, George Cunningham, Samuel Todd, Isaac Congo, ____ Jenkins and ____ Parks. On Mulberry Creek were John J. Whittaker, a good and prominent man; John Morgan, grandfather of Hon. John M. Bright, Brice M. Garner, who soon removed to Fayetteville, and Gen. William Moore. Others were the several Whitakers, Hardy Holman, William Brown, Enoch Douthat, the Waggoners and Isaac Sebastian.

Other settlements on Norris Creek were made prior to 1810 by Ebenezer McEwen, Robert Higgins, Amos Small and Philip Fox. It is said that Davy Crockett also lived in the vicinity of the waters of Mulberry, in the eastern part of the county, in 1809-10.

In Fayetteville James Bright, who is mentioned above, was one of the most prominent first settlers. James Buchanan, Francis Porterfield, Brice M. Garner, John P. McConnell, Robert C. Kennedy, Benjamin Clements and many others, made up the first citizens of the town. Alexander Beard settled near Fayetteville, south of the river. He has a large body of land, but lost a great portion of it in confirming his title, which, among many other North Carolina grants, was contested. Philip Koonce settled between Shelton Creek and Duke Creek in 1807 or 1808, and near by him, on Shelton Creek, settled Henry Kelso, about the same time. Tunstall Gregory settled on the waters of Shelton Creek, and John Duke on Duke Creek. Michael, Rolinson was one of the first settlers on Coldwater Creek; but an old man, named Abbot, lived in that part of the county five years, before he knew any one else lived within one hundred miles of him, so says one who vouches for the truth of it. A great many settlements were made prior to 1810, on the waters of Coldwater, but names can not be obtained. A man named Peyton Wells was the first to make a home in the vicinity of Wells Hill. He kept a noted ordinary or tavern. A man named Harper was the first to settle on the branch that now bears his name. Joseph Dean and William Todd soon became his neighbors.

The southeastern part of the county was sparsely settled along in the twenties, but the barrenness of the soil has deterred many from locating there.

Many other settlers suffered privations and hardships, as well as those above given, but their names and places of settlement are lost to reliable tradition. In 1808 land entries were made by the following: Anthony Foster, Daniel Cherry, John Morgan, Benjamin Fitzrandolph and George Maxwell. Other land entries were made as follows : 1809– Adam Meek, William Richey, Robert Davis, Nicholas Perkins, John Richardson, Joseph Greer, Michael Robertson, W.P. Anderson, Oliver Williams, Nicholas Coonrod, Newton Cannon, Wright Morgan, Abram Maury, Stephen Holbert, Malcom Gilchrist, William Martin, Edward Bryans, Jacob Castleman, Nimrod Williams, Jesse Franklin, John Tesley, Daniel Kinley, Philip Phillips, Michael Campbell, Samuel Garland, William Townzen, Robert Bigham and Robert Tucker. 1810 — Armstead Stubblefield. Abner Wells, William Rountree, Lemuel Koonce, Thomas R. Butler, Francis Nichson, John Cunningham, William Edmiston, James Buchanan, Morris Shaw, Thomas Edmiston, John Alcorn, Robert Elliott, Robert Nelson, James Winchester and Thomas Hickman, 1811-12– Reuben Stuart, John Cone, Timothy Hunter, James Coats, Roger B. Sapington, Henry Rutherford. 1813-14 — Robert C. Kennedy, Robert Henry, Alexander Newberry, Brice M. Garner, John Coffman, Francis McCown, Mary Gray, David Cowen, Hugh Heartgrave, James McBride, Joseph Garner, Jeremiah Burks, Elyan Clements, Alden Tucker, Thomas Clark, Joel Butler, Daniel Read, William McGehee, Jesse George, Edward Harding, Samuel Ragsdale, Samuel Yager and Aaron Dutton. 1815-20 – William Dickson, Jr., Jesse Pugh, William Smith, Warren Calhoun, Lavis Pugh, John Russell, Andrew Greer, William Dickson, David McGlathery, Henry Rutherford, David Dodd, James Boyle, John Clark, George Price, Joseph Byers and Joseph Street.

Doubtless many others grants were issued, the records of which are lost. Many of the above persons settled here before obtaining their grants, and some who obtained grants did not permanently settle, and even some were speculators who never lived in the county. On account of the climate and the fertile soil settlers were attracted to Lincoln County, and in 1833 it had a population of 10,788 free white persons. Since then parts of the county have been formed into other counties. In 1880 the population was 26,960.

Among the oldest persons now living in the county and who have been in the county since its pioneer days, are Hon. John M. Bright, Rev. J. W. Holman and C.A. French of Fayetteville, and Hugh M. Blake and Joseph Gill of Petersburg . Early pioneers found it no trival matter to develop their farms and raise their families. Not only was farming to be developed, but milling, merchandising, schools and churches, all required attention. However, these people were happy in their condition, and various were their amusements. Fayetteville, Petersburg and Arnold s Grocery (now Smithland) were noted places for settlement of all grudges in pummelling fights. The lookers-on enjoyed this very much, and it was their duty to see fair play. No weapons or missiles were to be used, and it was not fair to bite. In Fayetteville was a grocery, in which fighting was such a common occurrence that it was known as the war office, Militia musters were big days for the people.

Grist-mills were erected on the creeks and on Elk River, and there were several horse-mills in the county. To these horse-mills each man took his own horse or horses, and hitched them to the sweep to turn the mill while his grist was grinding. The water-mills were more economical, that is, they needed no horse power.

Joel Yowell, an early citizen of Petersburg, had a large horse mill two miles from Petersburg, with a hand-bolting machine attached. Jesse Riggs and Thomas Leonard also had mills of this kind. Leonard and Yowell had wheat threshers attached to their mills, and Leonard also had a cotton-gin attached. However, threshing was mostly done by tramping it out.

In 1811 the county court granted Elias Lunsford permission to build a saw mill on Mulberry Creek. This mill was built the following year. In 1814 David ; . Monroe built a grist-mill on the west fort of Cane Creek. Francis Finchee built a grist-mill in 1815. In 1820 Nathaniel B Binkingham built a mill on Cane Creek on a tract of school land.

Taverns were numerous, and were situated in all parts of the county without regard to towns. Ephraim Parham, Vance Greer, William Cross, Brice M. Garner and John Kelley obtained tavern license in 1811. Collins Leonard, Jesse Riggs, Cornelius Slater, John D. Spain, John P. McConnell, Elisha Boyles, William Garrett, George Stobah, C. R. Milborn, David Cobb, Joseph Dean, John Parks, William Smith, Walter Kinnard, Enoch Douthat, John H. Zevilly, John Houston, John Parks, Thomas Rountree and William Mitchell were other tavern keepers in the teens. These taverns were also know as ordinaries, houses of entertainment , etc.

Elk River was crossed by means of ferries. Ezekiel Norris had one of the first ferries on the river. William P. Anderson established a ferry at the mouth of Farris Creek in 1820, and Andrew Hannah, in 1822, established one at Hannah Ford.

Produce was marketed by means of flat-boats carrying it out of Elk River and down to New Orleans, and by wagons to Nashville. The very earliest merchants obtained their goods mainly from Baltimore, and brought them here by wagons from that city. Estill & Garner were experienced flat-boatmen. They took out boats each years, and returned on foot from New Orleans. At first cotton was not raised here to any extent, and that article was obtained in Alabama and freighted by wagons. Scouting Indians frequented these first settlements, but very few depredations were committed by them. It is handed down by reliable tradition that three men, whose names were Taylor, Anderson and Reed were scalped by the Indians while out searching for a horse. Another incident occurred wherein the Indians forced their way into a house where a woman was making soap. The woman had secreted herself behind the door with a gourd full of boiling soap, and upon their entrance she anointed the dirty red-skins with telling effect, causing them to flee for cooler parts.

Lincoln County was created by an act of the Legislature in 1809. The following is the act so far as it relates to establishment of the county:
AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A COUNTY SOUTH OF BEDFORD, TO BE KNOWS BY THE NAME OF LINCOLN.

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Tennessee, That Lincoln County shall be laid off and established within the following bounds, to wit: Beginning on the northeast corner of Giles County and extending south with the eastern boundary line of Giles County to the southern boundary line of the State; thence with that line east to a point due south of the mouth of the mouth of Cove Spring Creek; thence north to the southern boundary line of Bedford County, and thence, with the said line, westwardly, to the beginning.

Sec. 2. Be it enacted, that John Whitaker, Sr. Wright Williams, Eli Garret, Littleton Duty and Jesse Woodruff be, and they are hereby, appointed commissioners with full power to procure by purchase, or otherwise, 100 acres of land on or near the north bank of Elk River, as near the center of the county, east and west, as a proper situation will admit of, and at all events not more than two miles from said center.

Sec. 3. Be it enacted, that the said commissioners, immediately after procuring the aforesaid 100 acres of land, shall cause a town to be laid off thereon, reserving near the center thereof a public square of two acres, on which the court house and stocks shall be built, likewise reserving a lot in any other portion of said town for the purpose of erecting a jail; and the said town, when so laid off, shall be named Fayetteville.

Sec. 6. Be it enacted, that the court of pleas and quarter sessions, for the county of Lincoln shall be on the fourth Monday in the months of February, May, August and November annually, at the house of Brice M. Garret until a place is provided for holding the said court in the town of Fayetteville.

Sec. 11. Be it enacted, that the militia of the county shall compose the thirty-ninth Regiment and be attached to the Fifth Brigade.

Sec. 14. Be it enacted, that this act shall be in force from the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and ten.

The county thus established assumed the form of a rectangle in outline, but in 1835 a part of the territory now constituted in Marshall County was taken from the original Lincoln County, and in 1872 Moore County was created, embracing a part of Lincoln.

The first County court met Monday, February 26, 1810, at the house of Brice M. Garner, and the following men were qualified justices of the peace by Oliver Williams, Esq. of Williamson County: Thomas L. Trotter, Wright Williams, William Smith, John Whitaker, Sr. William Dickson, William Roundtree, Eli Garrett, Philip Koonce, Henry Kelso, Robert Higgins, Samuel Barns, Littleton Duty, James Stallard, Jesse Woodruff and Nathan G. Pinson. Philip Koonce was appointed chairman and Thomas H. Benton was made clerk pro tem., and entered the first minutes upon record. County officers were elected, an allowance of $1 each for wolf scalps was made, stock marks were recorded, constables were sworn in, justices were appointed to take the tax. etc. At this term 2,662 acres of taxable land were reported. Harvey Holman, Wright Williams, Littleton Duty, Eli Garrett and John Whitaler were appointed to locate the county seat. They bought 100 acres of land of Ezeckiel Norris and plated the town of Fayetteville.

At the May term William Allen was fined $3 for profane swearing, and the August term taxes laid as follows: 6 + cents on each 100 acres of land: 6 + cents on each poll {white and black}, and 12 + cents on each stallion. Ferriage rates across Elk River were established at the following: Wagon, team and driver, 50 cents; cart or other two-wheel carriage, 25 cents; man and horse, 6 + cents, footman, 6 + cents , and live stock 2 cents per head. Tavern rates were made: Good whisky per half pint, 12 + cents; good peach brandy, 12 +; good West India rum, 25 cents; good diet, 25 cents; good lodging, 6+ cents; good stableage with hay or fodder for 12 hours, 25 cents; good corn per gallon, 6+ cents. Brice M. Garner was allowed $15 for the use of his house for the holding of court, and $30 for furnishing county and record books. Jurors were allowed 50 cents each per day for service. At this term a man entered court with an ear bleeding from being bitten off in a fight. He had the incident recorded at length to avoid the imputation of having been cropped under the penal laws. The clerk charged the usual fee for recording a hog mark. At a term in 1811 two men were each fined $125 for not attending as witnesses in an important civil suit.

The county officers, so far as names and dates can be obtained, have been as follows: Sheriffs–Cornelius Slater, 1810; John Greer, 1812; Francis Porterfield, 1822, William Husband, 1826; Andrew Kincannon, 1828; Alfred Smith, 1833; William C. Blake, 1836; Constant Smith, 1840; William B. McLaughlin, 1844; E.G. Buchanan, 1847; Eli L. Hodge, 1848; James Hanks, 1852, W. M. Alexander, 1854; Moses Cruse, 1856; W. M. Alexander, 1858; Moses Cruse, 1860; William Moffett, 1862; John H. Steelman, 1864; William F. Taylor, 1866; C. S. Wilson, 1868; F. W. Keith, 1868; H. B. Morgan, 1870; W. A. Mallard, 1872; R. F. Holland, 1878; W. A. Cunningham, 1882; George W. Poindexter, 1884; Trustees– John Rhea, 1810; Ebenezer McEwen, 1816; William Neeld, 1826; Samuel E. Gilleland, 1828; E. M. Ringo, 1836; John J. Ramsay, 1838; Richard White, 1842; E. M. Ringo 1844; S. J. Isaacs, 1850; William B. Rhea, 1853; William Neeld, 1854; A. S. Randolph, 1858; William R. Smith, 1862; William P. Neeld, 1864; J. D. Scott, 1866; J. H. Carey, 1868; J. D. Scott, 1870; J. J. Cummins, 1872; H. C. Street, 1874; Henry Henderson, 1876-86. Registers– Samuel Barns, 1810; Cornelius Slater, 1816; Peter M. Ross, 1832; John Goodrich, 1836; Daniel J. Whittington, 1852; Peter Cunningham, 1860; Miles Ramsay, 1862; A. T. Nicks, 1864; A. J. Childress, 1869, P.D. Boyce, 1870; B. B. Thompson, 1874-86. Rangers– Philip Koonce, 1810-41; William T. Berry, 1843; A. H. Berry, 1848; N. O. Wallace, 1853-86. County Court Clerks– Brice M. Garner, 1810-32; Robert S. Inge 1832; F. L. Kincannon, 1832; Charles Boyles, 1836; George W. Jones, 1840; Harmon Husband, 1843; Henry Kelso, 1844; George Cunningham, 1852; E. L. Hodge, 1854; Norris Leatherwood, 1857; Daniel J. Whittington, 1858, John T. Gordon, 1864; E. P. Reynolds, 1868; John Y. Gill, 1870; P. D. Boyce, 1874; E. S. Wilson, 1882.

In 1856 J. R. Chilcoat was elected county judge, and served until the war. Afterward were elected T. J. McGarvey, 1869; J. C. Cowen, 1870; M. W. Woodard, 1873; N. P. Carter, 1874. Circuit court clerks: James Bright, 1810-36; Alfred Smith, 1836; J. R. Chilcoat, 1848; R. S. Woodard, 1868; Rane McKinney, 1870; A. B. Woodard, 1873; Theodore Harris, 1874; W. C. Morgan, 1878.

Chancery clerks and masters previous to the war were Davis Eastland, James Bright, Robert Farquharson and John Fulton served successively. Afterward were Robert Farquharson, until 1869; David Clark, 1869; A. S. Fulton, 1876; W. B. Martin, 1879. Chancellors: B. L. Bramlitt, Terry H. Cahall, B. L. Ridley, John Steele, A. S. Knox, J. W. Burton and E. D. Hancock.

The first court house built was only for temporary use, until another could be erected. It was 18×20 feet in the clear, built with round logs, and covered with a good cabin roof. It had a seat for the jury, court and a resting place for the feet of the court, all of good plank. It was built in 1811 on one corner of the Public Square, by James Fuller, for $35. The first jail was built in 1810, with logs not less than twelve inches in diameter and ten feet long. The walls, floor and loft were all of logs of the same description. In November 1811, a contract to built a new two-story brick court house on the Square, was taken by Micajah and William McElroy, for $3,995. The court afterward allowed $750 extra for the work, thus making the total cost of the building $4,745. This court house was torn down in 1873, and the present one was erected by William T. Moyers, James N. Allbright and William E. Turley, for $29,579,30. J. H. Holman, H. C. Cowan and John Y. Gill composed the committee to report the plans, specifications and estimates for the building; Theodore Harris superintended the work. The second jail that was built, was a two-story brick building, lined on the inside with logs, the logs being protected by sheet iron. It was built about the same time as the court house. The present jail was built in 1868, and by contract was to cost not more than $23,000. It is of stone.

The stone bridge across Elk River is one of the best structures of the kind in the State. It was built in 1861 at a cost of about $40,000. It is of limestone, contains six elliptical arches, and is 450 feet in its entire length. The roadway is flanked on either side by a stone wall three feet high and two feet wide.

The civil divisions of the county were first designated by the companies of militia in the respective parts of the county, i.e., the civil officers of the county were elected from the various militia companies, as they now are from the civil districts. In 1835 the county was laid off into twenty-five civil districts. The lines have been changed from time to time, but still the same number is retained. The school districts have not always coincided with the civil districts, but are now one and the same.

Among the first acts of the county was one to provide for the poor, and in 1815 a special tax was assessed for the county poor. About 1826 a poor farm was purchased and a poor house erected, the supervision of which was put under three commissioners, regularly appointed by the court. The poor are still cared for in this manner.

At different times agricultural societies have been organized, but have as often proved to be institutions of short life. This first one was organized in 1824.

In the year 1858 Fayetteville was connected with the main line of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad by the branch built from Decherd to Fayetteville, and in 1882 the narrow gauge road was built from Columbia to Fayetteville. The main support of these roads in the agricultural product, which in turn brings in articles of general merchandise. Pikes connect Fayetteville with Lynchburg and Shelbyville, and extend from Fayetteville for several miles in all directions.

The political cast of the county is strongly Democratic. In 1884 the vote for president and governor stood as follows: Cleveland, 2,382; Blaine, 890; Bate, 2,220; Reid 941.

Financially old Lincoln is on a strong foundation. She has first class public buildings, good general improvements, with a firm backing of a good agricultural soil. The tax for 1884 shows a total valuation of taxable property of $3.564,340; number of acres of land, 345,722, valued al $2,628,780. The State tax for 1886 is $10.192; county tax, $12,692; School tax, $16,257; road tax, $2,393; making a total tax of $41,535. These figures include the estimate on railroad and telegraph property valued at $166,890. In 1885 there was reported in the county 9,325 horses and mules, 14,090 cattle, 11,969 sheep, 42,415 hogs, 1.070 bushels barley, 213 bushels buckwheat, 1,252,919 bushels corn, 37,908 bushels oats, 1,641 bushels rye and 275,463 bushels wheat.

Upon the bench of the circuit court sat Judge Thomas Stewart to hold the first court in the county. Then came Judge Kennedy for a time, who was succeeded by Judge Edmund Dillahunty, who held for a number of years. A. J. Marchbanks was the next judge and continued on the bench until the war. Gov. Brownlow then appointed N. A. Patterson, who became the laughing stock for the lawyers who attended court. He was deficient in the organs of hearing, and very eccentric in nature. Then came W.P. Hickerson, who did not serve a full term. He resigned and was succeeded by Judge J. J. Williams, who was afterward elected to fill the term now closing. For many years Erwin J. Frierson was the attorney-general, and he was superseded in turn by A F. Goff, James H. Thomas, Joseph Carter, George J. Stubblefield, J. H. Holman, J. D. Tillman and A. B. Woodard, the present incumbent of the office. The court in early days was engaged mainly in trying petty offenses, and not until 1825 was there a sentence of death pronounced. Duncan Bonds had murdered Felix Grundy, and was found guilty. He took an appeal to the Supreme Court of the State. A jury in 1828 rendered a verdict of guilty upon a charge of murder committed by a man named McClure, upon D.C. Hall. He received the sentence of death, and was hung in the spring of 1829. About 1847 a negro named Bill Moore was sentenced and hung for an attempted rape. In 1862 John George was sentenced to be hung for murdering Hosea Towry. He escaped from jail. Two years previous to this, in 1860, a negro, Alf, was hung for murdering his master, William Stevens. The whipping post and pillory often received the victims of the judge s sentence for the various offenses, and men were imprisoned for debt.

The bar of Lincoln County is one that ranks high in Tennessee. Not only are the members at present eminent and able lawyers, but from the first Lincoln County has given a home to many able men. At the first meeting of the county court was present Thomas H. Benton. He drew up the minutes of the first session of that court, and was the county s legal advocate on organization. He resided in Fayetteville for a number of years He then arose to adorn the nation s highest legislative council, of which he was a member for thirty-two years, and was truly an eminent man of America. Contemporary with him was L.P. Montgomery, widely, known as the brave Capt. Montgomery, who began the practice of law in 1810, and who fell at the battle of Horse-Shoe. In 1810 George B. Baulch, George Coalter, William White, Joseph Phillips, Marmaduke Williams, Matthew D. Wilson and Alfred Harris were permitted to practice in the county. In 1811 Eli Tolbert, Samuel Acres and Charles Manton were allowed to practice. George C. Witt and W. S. Fontine also practiced here in that year. Hon. C. C. Clay, of Huntsville, Ala. attended this court as early as 1811, as also did John McKinney and John Tolbert. Other lawyers from adjoining counties visited this court professionally, among whom were Judge Haywood, and later, Nathan Green, James Campbell, William Gilchrist, Oliver B. Hays, Lunsford M. Bramlett and Thomas M. Fletcher. Other prominent early lawyers were James Fulton, Samuel W. Carmack, Charles Boyles, William C. Kennedy, William P. Martin, William M. Inge and John H. Morgan. John H. Morgan, after a number of years in Fayetteville, moved to Memphis, thence to Mississippi, and was elected to the bench in that State. He was the father of Hon. J. B. Morgan, of Mississippi. William P. Martin moved from Fayetteville to Columbia, Tenn, and there was a judge for many years.

Kennedy also removed to Columbia, where he too was elected to the bench. He became the owner of quite a number of slaves, which he emancipated and transported to the African colony of Liberia. W. M. Inge was for many years associated in law with L. W. Carmack at Fayetteville. He served one term in Congress from the district which then included Lincoln County, and afterward made his home in Alabama.

Carmack was born in 1802; was an able and learned lawyer. In 1832 he moved to Florida, although retaining a summer home in Fayetteville. He arose to prominence in Florida, and died in 1849.

James Fulton has been styled the father of the Fayetteville. He located in Fayetteville in 1820, when twenty-two years of age. He filled one term as attorney-general in early life, but devoted his time to the prosecution of his profession rather than pursue official honors. He was an able lawyer and a highly respected citizen. His death occurred in 1856.

Previous to 1825 the following were permitted to practice law in the county: E. B. Robertson. William Kelly, Tryon Yancey, besides those above mentioned. Others were W.D. Thompson and Henry B. Ely, 1827; David Eastland, 1829; John R. Greer and Robert Inge. 1832; Andrew A. Kincannon and Elliott H. Fletcher, 1834; George W. Jones, 1839. Mr. Jones was born in 1806, and came to this county when young. He was three times elected to the Legislature. For sixteen years he was a member of Congress, and was in the Senate once. In his congressional career he received the nickname of the watch dog of the treasury . He was also a member of the Confederate Congress and of the constitutional convention of 1870. He was a very able and popular man, filling many of the county offices and taking especial pride in his county s welfare. His death occurred in 1884. He devoted no time to the practice of law, but lived almost wholly in political circles. Other prominent early attorneys of the county were Felix G. McConnell, who went to Alabama and afterward served in the United States Congress, committing suicide while a member of that body; W.T. Ross, a very able advocate; John C. Rodgers, who died young, but was an able lawyer; and Archibald Yell, who was a man of ability and temper. He and Hon. G. W. Jones once engaged in a physical combat before the county court, of which Jones was chairman. Yell threw a book at Jones, and Jones immediately returned the salute by a personal presentation with knife in hand. By the interference of other parties, no injury was done. Yell commanded a regiment in the Mexican war and was killed at the battle of Buena Vista.

The influence of W. H. Stephens, R. G. Payne, W. F. Kercheval, F. B. Fulton and J. W. Newman, has been felt at the bar. Since 1840 Robert Farquharson, who was prominent in the county, but did not give much time to law; David P. Hurley , who was a member of the bar but a short time, and Jas. M. Davidson, an able young lawyer, have held licenses to practice in these courts. Others were D.B. Cooper, who died when yet young; David W. Clark, who pursued the profession but a short time, but was an influential man; J. R. Chilcoat, who was the first county judge; Thomas Kercheval, now the mayor of Nashville; Ed E. Bearden, O. P. Bruce and Thomas B. Kercheval.

Hon, John M. Bright is the oldest member of the bar now living, and probably acquired the most prominence in political circles. He was born in Fayetteville about 1818, and has ever since made this his home. He is able as an attorney, and a prominent member of the Legislature of Tennessee before the war. In 1880 he retired from Congress, where he had served for several years. J. B. Lamb is one of the oldest and most successful attorneys of the county, and has been a member of the Legislature. He is the senior member of the law firm of Lamb & Tillman, of which Col. J. D. Tillman is the other member. He is a son of the Hon. Lewis Tillman, late of Bedford County. He was lieutenant-colonel (afterward colonel} of the Forty-first Regiment of Tennessee Infantry in the late war. J. H. Holman has been a member of the bar since 1866, and is widely known for his ability. J. H. Burnham is a good speaker, and was on the Hancock electoral ticket. He is now making the race for chancellor of this district. N. P. Carter is the county judge and a practicing lawyer. A. B. Woodard, the attorney-general, was reared in Fayetteville, the son of R. S. Woodard, who was a prominent man of the county. M. W. Woodard, also a son of R. S. Woodard, is a practicing attorney, and has been identified with public offices of the county. Joe G. Carrigan and G. W. Higgins are also able attorneys, and have both been in the Legislature. G. B. Boyles is an attorney at law, and now fills the office of recorder at Fayetteville. Others are Col. N. J, George, who was a lieutenant-colonel in Turney s First Tennessee; A. M. Solomon, an ex-member of the Legislature; R. L. Bright, S. W. Carmack, C. C. McKinney, F. P. Taylor, W. B. Lamb, John Routt and George H. Newman.

The sobriquet of The Banner County, so applied to Lincoln, appropriately represents its attitude matters. Hardly had the first few settlers begun to call this their home before Jackson s troops for the war of 1812 asked and received recruits from the county, among whom were Gen William Moore, who commanded a company; Charles McKinney, S. S. Buchanan, William B. McLaughlin, Frank Smith and others as many as fifteen altogether. These troops made Fayetteville their rendezvous, and upon starting upon the campaign they marched out 2,500 strong and crossed Elk River, near where the stone bridge now is. These men served throughout the war, participating in the battle of New Orleans. A patriotic response was again made to the call for troops in 1836. A full company, commanded by Capt.—Tipps, entered from Lynchburg , and another company was raised by Capt. George A. Wilson, but was not mustered into service. However, Capt. Wilson raised a spy company of about fifty men and entered the service. The following are remembered as members of this company: Augustus Steed. Lieutenant; W. H. Bright, bugleman; William Robertson, David F. Robertson, Henderson Robertson, C. B. Rodgers and Oliver Garland. These were from Fayetteville and the immediate vicinity, while many from the various parts of the county also enlisted in this company, as well as in that of Capt. Tipps. By the act organizing the county the militia of Lincoln was made the Thirty-ninth Regiment and was attached to the Fifth Brigade. For many years the militia musters were largely attended, and amusements invariably attended them.

In the spring of 1846 a company of eighty-three men, known as the Lincoln Guards, was raised at Fayetteville for the Mexican war . It was officered as follows: Captain, Pryor Buchanan; first lieutenant, A. S. Fulton; second lieutenant, John V. Moyers; third lieutenant, C. A. McDaniel; orderly sergeant, William T. Slater. The company left Fayetteville March 31, 1846, and participated in the battle of Monterey, where several members were killed.

Early in the spring of 1861, and after the fall of Fort Sumter, and the call of President Lincoln for troops from Tennessee, war was the only thing discussed in Lincoln County. Old gray haired men, devoted wives, sisters and mothers talked of war until the whole atmosphere was full of it. Children after listening to the discussions and imagining that they could almost see the blood flow were afraid to go to bed, and were often afflicted with nightmare. Little tow-headed boys were shouting the battle whoop from every cabin. Old saws, hoes, etc., were soon upon forge or held to the grindstone to make the large, ugly, ill-shaped bowie knives. Almost every man carried two of these knives which were to repel the invasion in the hand-to-hand conflict which was imagined to be approaching. Public meetings were almost daily occurrences and fiery speeches were long and loud. Men, women, and children, of all ages, sizes and colors, went out to these meetings and joined in the general enthusiasm. Even ladies fell into the ranks of the drilling companies- even the most refined and intelligent; willing to part with -sacrifice, if necessary- those most near and dear to them, were enthusiastic and materially aided in sending forth the grand array of volunteers.

When the question of separation was submitted to the people, Lincoln polled 2,892 votes for separation and not one for no separation. However, even before the State seceded companies were organized and war preparations were rapidly going on. The first companies raised were four, which composed a part of Turney s First Tennessee, and one of which was raised principally in what is now Moore County. The others were officered as follows: Company G- B. F. Ramsey, captain; John Shackelford, first lieutenant; F. G. Buchanan, second lieutenant; Thomas Wilson, third lieutenant; and John Thoer, orderly sergeant. Company K- N. C. Davis, captain; T. J. Sugg, first lieutenant; Joe Davidson, second lieutenant; J. B. Turney, third lieutenant; John W. Nelson, first sergeant. Company H- Jacob Cruse, captain; M. V. McLaughlin, first lieutenant; N. J. George, second lieutenant. These companies left Fayetteville April 29, 1861, for Winchester, where the regiment was organized. These companies were with Turney s First Tennessee Confederates from the first of the war to its close, being in the hottest parts of many of the great battles of the war.

The field officers of this regiment who were from this county were, upon organization J. H. Holman, lieutenant-colonel; D. W. Holman, major. Upon re-organization John Shackelford, lieutenant-colonel; M. V. McLaughlin, major. These officers were killed at Gaines Mill and their places filled by N. J. George, lieutenant-colonel, and F. G. Buchanan, major. Dr. C. B. McGuire was surgeon of the regiment and was afterward brigade surgeon.

While these companies were organizing and going forth to duty, others were also forthcoming. On May 14, 1861, four other companies left Fayetteville, and on the same day arrived at Camp Harris, in Franklin County, where they were mustered into the service of the State on the 17th of the same month by Colonel D. R. Smythe of Lincoln County. These companies were assigned to the Eighth Tennessee, under the command of Col. A. S. Fulton, of Lincoln County. Lincoln County was also represented in this regiment by W. Lawson Moore, lieutenant-colonel; Chris C. McKinney, adjutant; Dr. G. B. Lester, assistant surgeon; and David Tucker, chaplain. Company B. known as the Petersburg Sharp Shooters, was raised at Petersburg, with A.M. Hall as captain; Chris C. McKinney, first lieutenant; T. W. Bledsoe, second lieutenant; C. N. Allen, third lieutenant; and N. P. Koonce, orderly sergeant. Company C was officered as follows: Rane McKinney, captain; N. M. Bearden, first lieutenant; T. W. Raney, second lieutenant; A. M. Downing, third lieutenant; and R. D. Hardin, orderly sergeant. It was known as the Camargo Guards. Company G. Norris Creek Guards, was raised at Norris Creek with George W. Higgins, captain ; W. C. Griswell, first lieutenant; David Sullivan, second lieutenant; E. S. N. Bobo, third lieutenant; Joseph G. Carrigan, orderly sergeant. Company H. Was commanded by W. L. Moore until he was elected lieutenant-colonel, and was then officered as follows: W. J. Theash, captain; William Bonner, first lieutenant; T. H. Freeman, third lieutenant; G. W. Waggoner, first sergeant.

The Eighth Tennessee was one of the two regiments that made the almost unparalleled Cheat Mountain campaign, enduring those severe privations, marching through rain day and night, leaving the roads stained with blood from their feet, and almost starving for want of food. Without blankets or tents and with very little food, for eight days these troops were undaunted in their onward march and in their flight for life, but many took sick and died from exposure and fatigue. Two companies were raised in the western part of the county and constituted in the Thirty-second Regiment. One of them was known as the Millville Men: J. J. Finney, captain; W. P. A. George, first lieutenant; Jno. W. Wright, second lieutenant; Jno. P. McGuire, third lieutenant; David F. Hobbs, first sergeant. The other was the Swan Creek Guards: C. G. Tucker, captain; John Roach, first lieutenant; J. T. Pigg, second lieutenant; H. H. Tucker, third lieutenant; J. S. Finley, first sergeant. The quartermaster of this regiment was E. S. Wilson, of this county.

Then came the organization of the Forty-first Tennessee, whose colonel was Robert Farquharson, of this county, and whose lieutenant-colonel {afterward colonel} was J. D. Tillman, now of Lincoln, then of Bedford. Lincoln furnished four companies to this regiment, viz.: One {company C} commanded by Capt. J. D. Scott, whose lieutenants were B. J. Chafin, J. R. Feeney, and Jacob Anthony, and afterward commanded by Chafin and Feeney successively; one from Mulberry {company A} commanded by W. W. James whose lieutenants were L. Leftwich, Christopher Carrigher and A. D. Johnson; one (knows as Liberty Guards) commanded by J. H. George; with the following lieutenants: William Smith, T. D. Griffis and S. A. Hopkins; and one commanded by W. B. Fonville, whose lieutenants were W. S. Bearden, A. A. Woods and E. R. Bearden. These companies left Fayetteville about the last days of September, 1861, and the regiment was organized at Camp Trousdale.

The Forty-fourth Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Trousdale in November, 1861, with C. A. McDaniel, colonel, and D. J. Noblett, assistant surgeon, from this county. It also included four companies from Lincoln; one commanded by C. A. McDaniel, who, upon being elected colonel, was superseded by T. M. Bell, and he by J. E. Spencer, with the following lieutenant, Joseph Cunningham, A. B. Rhea, and J. J. Martin; one by W. A. Rhodes, with J. H. Patterson, Jacob Van Hoozer and C. K. Moody as lieutenants; one from Shelton Creek, commanded by Capt Smith, and one from Swan Creek, commanded by Capt. Stiles.

The Forty-fourth was actively engaged in some of the fierce conflicts of the war. At Shiloh forty-two per cent of those of the regiment actually in combat were killed and wounded. Afterward this regiment and the Fifty-fifth Tennessee were consolidated, still retaining the name of the former, and embracing another company from this county, which was organized in the latter part of 1861, by W. H. Moore, and embraced in the Fifty-fifth upon the organization of that regiment. Early in 1862 another company was raised by Capt. James R. Bright, with R. B. Parks, J. L. Moore and Stephen Loyd, as lieutenants, and entered an infantry regiment of Kentucky. After the battle of Shiloh the company was reorganized with W. P. Simpson, captain, and J. B. Price, T. D. Hill and G. W. Jones, lieutenants. J. L. Moore who was second lieutenant at its first organization, afterward raised another company and entered the service.

December 21, 1861, there were twenty-one companies of infantry from Lincoln County in the service. However, this number included those raised in Moore County, which was then a part of Lincoln. The company of J. L. Moore, was probably the last full company of infantry to leave the county as a company. Recruits were added to the old commands throughout 1862-64. About September, 1862, Freeman s Battery, which was a part of Hardin s Artillery, received about fifty members from Lincoln County, only one of whom was killed in the service. A great many of Forrest s escort were from this county, probably the majority of the members. Capt. Nathan Boone was captain of the escort. Other cavalry regiments received members from the county. Wheeler s First. Tennessee Cavalry was composed of some Lincoln County boys, as was the Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry and also the Fourth Tennessee Cavalry.

Including all men in the service from first to last, Lincoln County furnished nearly 5,000 soldiers. Besides the regular companies of infantry there were several who entered war in companies from adjoining counties. This was also case with artillery men and cavalry men. At all times recruits were entering the old commands.

At the organization of Capt. Higgins company of the Eighth Tennessee, the ladies of Norris Creek and vicinity presented the boys with a beautiful large flag, the presentation being made by Miss Sallie Landess in an eloquent and stirring address. On the 25th of August, 1861, a magnificent flag was presented to the Eighth Regiment by the ladies of Lincoln County, accompanied by an inspiring address from the Hon. John M. Bright. On the flag were written in large gold letters the words, Patience, Courage, Victory. Many times did the ladies send stores of provisions, containing delicacies for the sick, clothing and all kinds of hospital and camp supplies. Much of the inspiration that enabled the troops to remain in the field with sickness, danger and deprivations, came from the encouragement received from the ladies at home.

The Federals first entered Fayetteville April 9, 1862, causing a sudden suspension of business. They withdrew after about two months stay, and again occupied the town in the spring of 1863, remaining until 1865. The court house was used as a stable for the horses a part of the time, and for the protection of troops at other times. It was surrounded by a bomb proof wall about six feet high, built of brick. The whole county was almost impoverished by the foraging armies passing to and fro. Sherman s whole army, on its march from Memphis to Chattanooga, passed through Fayetteville and crossed Elk River on the stone bridge, which, affording an excellent passage over the river, caused many of the passing armies, both Federals and Confederates, to pass through here. While Fayetteville was occupied by the Federals, business was at a standstill and many depredations were committed. When requested to do anything the citizens did not wait for time to argue points. The depredations, however, were mostly committed by Brixie s band of robbers, who in the main, claimed to be Yankees. Among the most dastardly acts, which the people suffered, was the murder of Judge J. R. Chilcoat. Afterward John Massey, a Confederate soldier, who had returned home {together with two other men named Pickett and Burrow}, was brutally murdered- riddled with bullets. Some buildings were burned county records were destroyed and, of course, property was confiscated. Guerrillas did not injure the people to any great extent.

The war over, the soldiers laid down their arms to return to their avocations of life. They found their farms in a deplorable condition. Their stock was gone, fences burned, buildings going to rack or entirely destroyed. The cost of the war to Lincoln County can hardly be estimated. However, she has now almost recovered from the effects, the hard times and desperate conflicts are remembered as in the past, and all unite in one grand army for the upbuilding of the welfare of the country.

There was a differences of opinion as to the expediency of the location of the county seat where it was located. One-hundred acres of land was obtained of Ezekiel Norris, and a town of 128 lots was platted. On September 5 and 6, a sale of lots was made, the following, among others, being purchasers: Potter & Wilson, 11; Eleanor Buchanan, 1; John Buchanan, 2; Charles Porter, 2; Francis Ross, 1; Robert Ramsey, 1; Joseph Sumner, 2; John Kelly, 2; William Whitaker, 2; Hugh Blake, 2; Joseph Commons, 2; Walter Kinnard, 2; Rice M. Garner, 2; Peter Looney, 1; Joseph Jenkens, 2; Joseph McMillan, 1; James Bright, 2; John Angel, 1; James Cochran, 1; Stephen Chinnault, 1; Jacob Van Zand, 1; The records in the register s office are not all preserved, hence, the names of all the first purchasers can not be obtained.

Among the earliest merchants were Francis Porterfield, Robert Buchanan, Robert H. McEwen, and Robert H. Dickson, all of whom were successful. Mr. Dickson also ran a tan-yard and saddlery. Ephraim Parham was the first man to obtain tavern license; John P. McConnell and Vance Greer also kept taverns in Fayetteville very early. Between 1820 and 1830 existed the following firms: General merchants–Buchanan & Porterfield. R. & W. Dickson. Mason & McEwen, Alex R. Kerr & Co., A. A. Kincannon, Akin, Bagley & Co., McEwen & Gilleland, Daniel Dwyer, H. S. Morgan, William F. Mason & Co., Thompson & Wardaw, John Thompson, Dickson & Wallace, J. H. Wallace, William Akin & Co. Grocers–Parks & Moyers, and J. G. Selph & Co. Physicians– J. B. Sanders, G. & R. Martin, William Bonner, A. C. Gillespie, Charles & J. V. McKinney, J. J. Todd. C. J. Smith and R. Stone. Besides these, James Crawford had a saw-mill, gristmill and distillery; S. A. Pugh ran a saddlery and Barclay & Ross a furniture store; E. M. Ringo was a watch-maker, Jacob Moyers a coppersmith, I. H. Wallace a shoe-maker, Weigart & Bryant and H. Worsham, tailors. C. Wilson had a bookbindery. An inn was kept by W. H. Talbot. Wool cards were run by Frost & Co., and by Johnson & Garner.

In December, 1823, Robert Dickson, Esq., was elected mayor. Vance Greer, R. H. McEwen, Chas. McKinney, Elliott Hickman, Joseph Commons and J. P. McConnell were elected aldermen; Wm. F. Mason, recorder; Vance Greer, treasurer, and Wm. Timmins, constable. In the thirties, the most prominent general merchants were Wm. Dye & Son. Napoleon Garner, Gilliland & Roseborough, Gilliland, Smith & Co., Martin & Murphy, and A. C. McEwen & Co. The physicians were J. B. Chas. McKinney, Wm. & M. C. Bonner, and Elliott Hickman. In the forties general merchandising was carried on by H. & B. Douglas, A. T. Nicks, John Goodrich, Jno. A. McPhail, S. Hart & Co. R. H. C. Bagley. Fulghum & Short, J. S. & J. T. Webb, Morgan & Neil, A. B. Shull, H. C. Holman & Bro., W. W. Petty, Southworth & Co., D. M. Tucker, T. C. Goodrich, W. H. Webb, Webb & Thompson, George F. Smith, B. L. Russell, Southworth, Morgan & Neil and Scott & Gray. Rane McKinney and Deimer & Hampton were druggists. Webb & Smith had a book store.

In the fifties, Wright & Trantham, T. C. Goodrich, Wright & Ransom, Thomson & Buchanan, Goodrich, Buchanan & Beavers, W. D.& S. M. Ewing and Russell & Tucker were general merchants. Fletcher & Stogner were produce dealers. Groceries were kept by all the general merchants. Scott & Gray were merchants tailors and furnishers. The first carriage manufactory ever established was by Raboteau, Hobbs, & Walker. C. S. Wilson kept a livery stable and Chilcoat & Edmonson a tavern. Diemer & Hampton were druggists.

In the sixties after the halt caused by the war had place to business, general merchandising was carried on by Wright & Trantham, Newman & McLaughlin, J. C. & J. F. Goodrich, Murray & Morgan, P. T. Murray, Morgan Bros., F. W. Brown & Co. Druggist were Diemer & Miles and Smith & Blake. Grocers were Foster & Co., and Woods & Woodard. Moyers & Wilson were dealers in furniture. In the seventies business assumed wider proportions. Morgan Bros., P. T. Murray, Wright & Wright, J. C. Goodrich. T. J. Gray Co. , Smith & Miles, J. E. Caldwell, Nassauer & Hipsh, Hart & Fisher and F. W. Brown did a general mercantile trade. B. J. Chafin & Co., Bagley Bros., Bryson & Lauderdale, J. W. Barnett & Co., J. C. Goodrich, R. L. Gains & Co., W. H. Webb and W. R. Smith dealt in groceries. J. B. Hill, who had been in business for many years, and S. Heymann were jewelers. E. C. McLaughlin, J. S. Alexander and C. S. Wilson ran liveries. S. W. Brown & Co., Blake & McPhail and R. H. Ogilvie were hardware merchants. Douthet Bros. and Gray, Hatcher & Waddle were dealers in boots and shoes. J. T. Medearis ran a tan-yard.

The present business is as follows: General merchants–Wright & Wright. Nassauer & Hipsh, Kilpatrick & Co., Morgan Bros., J. A. Murray & Co., J. A. Lumpkin, J. W. Naylor & Sons, Whitaker & DeFord and T. C. Goodrich & Co. Groceries– J. C. Goodrich, Lauderdale & Rowell B. J. Chafin, Bagley Bros., E. E. Feeney, Stonebraker & Co., Bryson & Francis, J. L. McWhirter, W. K. Woodard, Blake & Rawls, Z. P. Gotcher, J. A. Bunn & Son, H. Nevill and J. W. Bennett. Hardware–Lamb & Robertson and Benedict & Warren. Drugs–W. A. Gill & Co. Smith & Miles, W. W. Christian and C. A. Diemer & Son. Jewelers–J. B. Hill, S. Heymann and A. D. Ruth. Bookstore–R.S. Bradshaw. Saloons–W. W. Alexander & Co., Eaton & Evans, Alexander & Copeland, B. J. Chafin and J. L. McWhirter. Livery stables–C. S. & R. M. Wilson and J. S. Alexander. Physicians–W. C. Bright, C.A. Diemer, C.B. McGuire, R. E. Christian and W. W. Christian. Grain merchants– Holman & Woods and Bruce & Cowen. General produce– C. Bonds and Caldwell & Scott. Furniture and undertaking– J. B. Wilson and J. A. Formwalt. The leading hotel is the Petty House. Others are kept by Sanford Prosser, S. G. McElroy, Mrs. A. Johnson, and T. S. King has a restaurant. Bearden & Thomas have a flouring-mill, J. L. Waggoner a planing-mill, and L. Peach runs a stone, saw and marble works. J. L. Vaughn manufactures carriages and buggies.

The first newspaper in Fayetteville was the Fayetteville Correspondent, edited and published by David Augustine Hays; only a few numbers were issued. The Village Messenger was then published from March 11, 1823 to July 18, 1828, by Ebenezer Hill. In 1829 the Western Cabinet was commenced by Ebenezer Hill and John H. Laird. Mr. Hill published one volume of Haywood s reports in his office. He published Hill s Almanac for a great many years, making it a part of the standard literature of southern Tennessee and northen Alabama. As early as 1833 the Independent Yeoman was published by Joe B. Hill, afterward by Joe B. & E. Hill. Then it was purchased by W. L. & A. H. Berry, and published as the Lincoln Journal, from 1840 to 1848, at which time C. A. French, became the editor ans publisher, continuing it until the war. In 1840 a Whig paper, the Signal, was started and issued but a few numbers. After the war the Lincoln County News was started by Ebenezer Hill, Jr., and continued by W. P. Tolley for some years. The Fayetteville Express was established in 1873 by S. H. McCord, was afterward published by McCord & Lloyd, and is now by Lloyd & Blake. The Fayetteville Observer was established in 1850, stood the war stroke, and continues to be a thriving paper, edited and published by N. O. Wallace.

The Lincoln Savings Bank was established in 1870 with a capital of $100.000, did a seemingly good business, but suspended in 1884, jarring the financial status of the whole county considerably. The First National Bank was organized in June, 1873, with a capital stock of $60.000. Its first president was Hon. George W. Jones. Its present president is Dr. C. B. McGuire; its cashier, J. R. Feeney.

As early as the year 1824 a Masonic Lodge was established but existed only a few years. Jackson Lodge, No. 68, F. & A. M. Was chartered October 9, 1828, and now has a membership of over 40. Calhoun Lodge, No. 26, I. O. O. F., was chartered April 6, 1846, and now has nearly 30 members. Fayetteville Lodge, No. 181, K. Of H., was established April 1, 1875, and has a membership at present of nearly 65. Protection Lodge, No. 8. A. O. U. W., began its existence from charter dated May 2, 1877. Jewel Lodge. No. 59, K. & L. Of H. Was established April 1, 1879, and has about 60 members. There are five church edifices in the town, owned respectively by the Cumberland Presbyterians, Presbyterians, Methodist Episcopal Church South, Christians and the Protestant Episcopalians. The Missionary Baptists have an organization but no building. There are four churches for the colored people of the following denominations: African Methodist Episcopal, Primitive Baptist, Missionary Baptist and the Cumberland Presbyterian.

About 1815 George L. Leonard settled where Petersburg now is and cleared up the land there. He put up a cotton-gin, and afterward began the first mercantile trade of the place by selling small articles of merchandise, such as thread, etc. Porterfield & Akin established a small store in 1828, and Wm. DeWoody conducted their business. In 1833 they were superseded by Rowlett & Hill, and soon others followed. Holman & Loyd, Jones & Yowell, Rives & Hayes and Stone & Reese were merchants before 1840 and all did a large business. Then came a lull in the business tide of Petersburg instil the war; however, Metcalfe & Son did a good business during this time, as also did Wynus, Blake & Co., Smith, Blake & Co. And Fonville & Bledsoe. Since the war the principal merchants have been W. J. Hamilton, P. B. Marsh & Son, Fogleman & Cummings and Hall & Hamilton, together with the present business firms. General merchants– G. A. Jarvis, Cummings & Bledsoe and B. S. Popflanus, grocers–E.M. Crawford and L. L. Rebman; W. R. Hanaway, undertaker and furniture dealer; Rives & Christopher, saddlers and harness-makers; saloons–J. W. King & Co., F. S. Cummings & Co. And Pack & Byrd; blacksmiths–Alex Lancaster and George Morrison. J. C. Montgomery has a large frame flouring-mill, and Dwiggins & Co. Are erecting a fine brick mill. Gillespie Bros. Do a livery business.

The secret societies are Unity Lodge, No. 84 I. O. O. F., which has a membership of twenty; Petersburg Lodge, No. 123, was organized in 1846, and for many years was very strong, but now has only a weak organization; Petersburg Lodge, No. 607, K. Of H., has a membership of thirteen, and was organized in 1877. Petersburg has a good school, and five churches of the following denominations: Methodist Episcopal South, Presbyterian Cumberland Presbyterian, Missionary Baptist and Christian. It is a chartered town, but by some the charter is considered a burden. It is situated on the Duck River Valley Railroad, twelve miles from Fayetteville.

Mulberry began to exist as a village about 1840. Among the merchants that have transacted business there were Booker Shapard, Drury Conley, Abner Brady, R. N. Whitaker, W. W. James & Co., Hoots & Logan and J. & W. H. Reese, previous to the war. Since the resumption of business after the war have been W. W. James & Co., W. L. Shofner, R. A. & J. H. Reese, Whitaker & Yates, E. S. Terry and J. G. Reese, the last two of whom are now in business. Several family groceries, etc., have existed from time to time. The Mulberry Academy began about 1830, and has become a noted school. There was once a male and female academy, but it is now known as the Mulberry Male and Female Academy. There in one Missionary Baptist Church, one Cumberland Presbyterian Church, one Methodist Episcopal Church South and one Christian Church. Physicians are G. W. Jones, A. R. Shadden and S. Dance. Mulberry Lodge, No. 404. F. & A. M., was organized in 1870, and is in a prosperous condition. It had twelve charter members. Mulberry Lodge, No. 148, was chartered in 1871 and has only a very weak organization. The Good Templars have a lodge of about ninety members. There are two good mills near by. In the village are two blacksmith shops, two wood-work shops and a cabinet-maker and undertaker.

Boonshill was one of the first postoffices established in the county. Previous to the war Wood & Daniel, Hudson & Horton and Sumner & Ewing were merchants there. Since the war have been Buchanan & White, E. S. Wilson & Co., Swinebroad & Co., Templeton & Son and H. D. Smith, the present merchants. Physicians have been Dr. John Wood, Dr. Dunlap, Dr. Porter, Dr. Parks and Dr. Sumner. Stephen Hightown first settled where Millville now is. Stone & Baird were the first merchants; others were Frank McLane, Sam Isaacs, Thomas McLaurine, McGuin & Son, McGuire & Franklin, Ezell & Hudspeth. Since the war have been Ezell & McGuire, F. L. Ezell, Ally Smith and Finney & Son. Dr. C. B. McGuire practiced medicine there from 1847 to 1859; others have been Dr. M. P. Forehand and Dr. G. W. McGuire.

Dellrose was first known as Roosterville. Hog Bruce was the founder and first merchant. It has only been a village since 1867. D. C. Sherrill & Co. Are now doing business there. These is a good school. Dr. B. S. Stone is the physician of the place. Molino postoffice was established in 1849, by D. C. Hall, the first postmaster and merchant. Since the war, merchants have been Robert Stewart, James W. Rawls, Joe Montgomery and J. H. Dale & Co. J. W. Rawls was a blacksmith, and John Hays the present one. It has a Missionary Baptist Church there, and is located in a good locality. Howell is a small station on the narrow-gauge railroad, seven miles from Fayetteville. It was first known as Renfroe Station. Harris Bros, and George Bros, are merchants. It has a good railroad depot and a Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Oak Hill is a village nine miles north of Fayetteville. The postoffice is Norris Creek. H. L. Cole and James Bell are merchants. It has a good school, a Cumberland Presbyterian Church and a Missionary Baptist Church. There is also a Masonic lodge of thirty-eight members-Mount Hebron, No. 344, and a weak lodge I. O. O. F.- Oak Hill, No. 39. A pike connects Oak Hill with Fayetteville. Stonesborough is a chartered town and consist of a distillery owned by Stone & Thomas, and a store and saloon owned by Stone & Patterson. W. J. Landers has a tan-yard between this place and Oak Hill. Chestnut Ridge is also in the north part of the county. J. N. Stallings is a merchant. James Freeman a blacksmith, and Wash. Gilbert a wagon-maker. Chestnut Ridge Lodge No. 499, F. & A. M., has about fifteen members, and Chestnut Ridge Lodge, No. 157, I. O. O. F., has nearly fifty members. There is a church near by.

Booneville, received its name from Capt. Nathan Boone. Musgraves and Shofner, and J. E. Reese are merchants. It is about three miles from Mulberry Village. Blanche was first known by postoffice as Pleasant Plains. Samuel Parker was the first postmaster, and W. W. Petty the first merchant in 1849. It began to assume the proportions of a village after the war, and is now a pleasant and thriving little town. Dr. J. C. Coasts is the merchant and physician. There is located here Pleasant Plains Lodge, No. 305, F. & A. M. , and a church. There are several county stores near by.

Smithland was known as George s Store until 1884. At first the postoffice was on the north side of Elk River, having been established about 1840. It was moved to Arnold s grocery about 1850, and there Smithland has been built. This was a notorious fighting place. Taylor & McLaughlin and R. Smith are the present merchants. An I. O. O. F. Lodge, Sereno No. 195, is located at Smithland.

Camargo was established in 1849 and was a flourishing village prior to the war. John Caughran was the first merchant. Others have been Nicks & Webb, J. N. & W. A. Stallings, Wm. Ashworth, Samuel Dehaven and J. A. Corn.

Lincoln is settled mainly by northern people who went to that place after the war. J. F. Montgomery, J. R. McCown, J. E. Ramsey and J. C. McClellan have been merchants there. In 1887 ____ Crosby started a small spinning Factory at Oregon. In 1839 it was bought by Henry Warren, was afterward operated by H. & T. K. Warren, and is now operated by Henry Warren & Son. This factory has about 1,000 spindles, a cotton-gin and a flouring and grist-mill attached, being an investment of about $20,000 capital. Oregon is three and once-half miles from Flintville, its shipping point. It has a Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

Elora was formerly known as Baxter Station, and only dates its beginning since the building of the Fayetteville & Decherd Branch Railroad. It is in the southeast corner of one now existing from Fayetteville to Decherd. J. B. Hamilton and W. M. Parker & Co. Are the merchants.

Flintville, twelve miles from Fayetteville, on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, has sprung into existence since the building of that road. The first merchants were Cunningham & Myrick; J. A. Grills was the first blacksmith; Peter Cunningham put a grist-mill, and then he and L. P. Myrick engaged in distilling. The town was all destroyed by the Federals the time of the war. Since the war merchandising has been carried on by D. M. & J. C. Mimms & Knowles, D. M. Mimms, Kilpatrick & Co., Merrit & Golden (saloon), Chas. Kelley, D. M. & W. G. Mimms, Richard Routt, A. Smith, Peter Cunningham, Brady & Hall, Henry Warren & Son, and Chick & Eslick. J. W. Cooper & J. J. Coston have been blacksmiths and wagon-makers, and Joseph Richardson, a saddler; E. J. Cambron is a carriage and cabinet-maker; Tolley, Eaton and Sims have run distilleries, and Copeland & Co. Now have a large distillery. They also have a good mill. John Young also has a mill. Surprise Lodge, No. 153, I. O. O. F., is located there with sixteen members. There are four church organizations at Flintville.

Kelso s first merchant was A. S. Fulton. Subsequent merchants have been hill Southworth, D. M. Eslick and Jenkens McKinney. Present merchants are J. A. Taylor, G. D. Wicks and M. S. Eslick. Kelso Lodge, No. 490, F. & A. M., and Kelso Lodge No. 172, I. O. O. F., are located there, and also a Cumberland Presbyterian Church is at Kelso.

The attention of the early pioneers was required by almost everything before it was given to means of educating the children. This most important subject was not long entirely neglected, for those who had sufficient education taught short terms of school at the different private residences early in the teens. After a time, by agreement, the settlers would meet to build a schoolhouse in the different localities. These buildings were of logs, with a door in one end and a fire-place in the other, not all of them had fire-places, and those that them generally allowed the escape of the smoke through a large hole in the roof, there being no chimneys to them. This was the condition of the schoolhouses even through the twenties. The seats were made of poles split open, supported on legs about three feet long, and with the flat side up. Light was admitted through an aperture made by leaving out one log along the sides of the building. A bench or plank for writing was supported on pins driven in the log just beneath the window. The roofs of these primitive institutions of learning were of boards held to their place by weight poles. Each pupil took whatever book he could find. Some studied the Life of Washington, others the Life of Marion, and a few would take a Clarion {the paper then published at Nashville} to school, and learn from that. These were pay-schools, the tuition being from 75 cents to $1 per pupil for one month. Various were the rules and requirements of these schools. Each teacher had new rules. An invariable custom was to make the teacher treat or take a duckin on Christmas and at the close of school. If a mischievous boy passing the schoolhouse desired to be chased at a lively rate it was only necessary for him to yell out school butter, when the teacher would say to his pupils: Take him in, boys. Reading and writing were the main branches taught, and arithmetic was sometimes taught. Pupils recited one at a time. They were by most teachers allowed to seek the out-door, pure atmosphere in fair weather to prepare their lessons. Prior to 1820 {probably as early as 1815} the Fayette Academy was established. This was a county academy, and derived its support from a State fund. The building became untenable about 1854, and the new building just then erected by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was to be used by Milton College, which did not materialize, was purchased, and Fayette Academy continued for some years, and then sold the building to the county school commissioners.

The Fayetteville Female Collegiate Institute began its existence almost as early as the Fayetteville Academy. The land was donated by James Bright. This institution is under the control of a company and board of trustees. The building first used was torn down in 1884 to give place to the present splendid brick building. The enrollment for the past year was about 220 pupils. Although it, by name, is known as a female school, both sexes are admitted.

The Mulberry Female Academy was established in 1830 and existed as such until 1869, when it was consolidated with the Mulberry Male Academy, and since the institution thus formed, has prospered under the name of the Mulberry Male and Female Academy. The Mulberry Male Academy was formed and put in working order in 1844.

Viney Grove Academy was founded by the Rev. Henry Bryson and conducted with great success by him for many years. This once ranked with the standard educational institutions of the South, but it has died away. It was five miles west of Fayetteville. Boonshill Academy has existed since before the war. The building is a nice brick house, and good schools are taught there.

The Petersburg Masonic Academy was founded by that fraternity in 1858 and is taught in the lowest story of the brick Masonic Hall at Petersburg. Oak Hill Institute flourished from 1865 to 1880 with considerable success. The building is frame. Nixon Springs Academy, near Smithland, was a good institution from 1875 to 1880. Hopewell Academy at Lincoln was endowed by the United Presbyterian Church and is a well-conducted school. Greenwood Academy, between Mulberry and Booneville, was established in the fifties, and has a brick building. Cane Creek Academy, at Howell, also has a brick building and is comparatively a new institution.

The public school of Lincoln County are gaining is favor, but are yet in their infancy. There are eighty-two public school in the county for white, and thirty-one for colored people. There are but eighty-four public school buildings, but school is taught in other buildings. The buildings are as follows: Stone and brick, 3; frame, 47; log, 34; total, 84. Value of school buildings is estimated at $23,460. And the value of apparatus, etc., at $1,570. The scholastic population of the county for this year is 9,912, and the amount of school fund, at $1.75, per capita, is $17.346.

As in all new countries, the first settlers of this section were more accustomed to the sound of the hunting horn and chasing hound than to pulpit oratory on the Sabbath. However, many good Christian people were among the first pioneers, and they established Scripture readings, and even preached sermons at the different private residences. Early services were held in the court house, and not unfrequently did people assemble at some designated place in the woods to hear a sermon.

In 1811 the earthquake shock which was so sensible felt here was by many regarded as the approach of the Last Great Day, and consequently many accessions to the Christian flock were made. For a considerable time big meetings were held, and a great revival was experienced, but after a time the lull in the tide came, the spirit of the meetings died down. Yet there was a good work being done by some of the good Christian people. As early as 1808 a church was organized at the Forks of Mulberry, and it is a Primitive Baptist organization. Hardy Holman was the first pastor. In about 1812 the Shiloh congregation was organized by the same denomination. Other churches of this {the Primitive or old-school Baptist} denomination, are Concord, which was organized prior to 1820; Mount Olivet, probably organized in the twenties; New Hope, a small congregation, but an old one; Kelly Creek, which began existence in the forties. Pleasant Grove; Rocky Point; Bethel; and Buckeye, which was organized as late as 1866 with a membership of nineteen and now has 165 members. Nearly all of these churches are in a good condition and prospering.

In the fall of 1812 the Presbyterian Church of Fayetteville was organized with the Rev. John Gillespie as pastor. The first elders were David Turner, Andrew Hannah, Francis Patton, John Armstrong and Ebenezer McEwen. Private members were Peggy Hannah, Mrs. Armstrong, Mrs. Patton, Mrs. Turner, Peggie Gillespie, Mary McEwen, Elizabeth Ferguson, John B. Alexander and Barbara Alexander. Subsequent pastors of this church have been John R. Bain, James McLinn, Amzi Bradshaw, E. McMillan, M. M. Marshall, W. C. Dunlap, D.D., George Hall, A. D. McClure, J. H. Bryson, W. H. Groves and R. M. DuBose. The present membership is 105. First worship was in the court house; afterward an edifice was built, which was destroyed by a storm in 1851, and then the present one was erected. Other Presbyterian Churches of the county are: Unity, eight miles from Fayetteville, organized about 1829, and now having a membership of about forty; Petersburg, organized May 5, 186,. And now having about forty members; Swan Creek , organized as early as 1830, now having a membership of fifty; and Young s Chapel, with a membership of twenty-five, and having existed only since 1870. One other church, by the name of Old Unity, once existed, but is now extinct.

Bethel Church of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian denomination was organized 1830 by Rev. H. Bryson, who continued as its pastor until his death in 1874, and was superseded by Rev. A. S. Sloan, the present pastor. There are three other churches in the county of that denomination known as the New Hope, Prosperity and Pleasant Plains.

Early in 1829 a camp-meeting was held near Fayetteville by distant workers in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Great success blessed this meeting and an organization of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church of Fayetteville was accomplished the same year. Rev. S. M. Cowan was the first pastor, continuing many years, and under him the church multiplied in numbers and strengthened in good work. Subsequent ministers have been Herschel S. Porter, W. D. Chaddick, D. D. , Stokely Chaddick, S. M. Cowen, again M. B. DeWitt, ____McElree, Nat Powers, C. P. Duvall, ____ McDonald and J. S. Weaver. Among the first members were Benjamin Clements and wife, William Norris and wife, Benjamin Wear and wife, S. O. Griffs and wife, George Stonebraker and wife, Jacob Stonebraker and wife and Dr. Charles McKinney and wife.

Cane Creek Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized in 1817 by Rev. R. Donel, and now has 138 members. J. B. Tiger has been its pastor for twenty-five years, and in its seventy years of existence the church has never been without a pastor, although but five men have served as pastors. There are thirteen other Cumberland Presbyterian Churches in the county, viz.: Mulberry, with a membership of about 50; Mount Zion, organized by Rev. D. Tucker about eight years ago; Hebron, an old church with about 125 members; New Unity, with 100 members; Petersburg, with about 70 members; New Salem, and old church, with a membership of about 75; Pisgah, organized about 1856, and now having about 40 members; Liberty, organized about 1878, present membership about 50; Sulphur Spring, with 75 members, built and supported by Henry Warren for his factory hands; Moore s Chapel, a young congregation of about 100; Elkton, a small congregation; Flintville, a new congregation with a small membership; and New Lebanon, about twelve years old and having a large membership.

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Fayetteville was organized prior to 1829. Rev. Joshua Kilpatrick was its pastor that year. Present membership is 162. The present church building was erected about 1846. The other Methodist Episcopal Churches South and their approximate memberships are follows: Shady Grove, 100; Lloyd s Chapel, 75; Providence, Beech Grove, Union and Boonville, 331; Petersburg, __; Macedonia, Hermon, Flintville and Liberty, 350; Medium and Moore Chapel, 263; Mulberry, 90; Shiloh, 100; Dellrose, __; Blanche, Smith s Chapel, Shiloh and Ebenezer, __; and New Bethel, a new organization. This denominations is in a prosperous condition.

The Christians have nine organizations. They are as follows: Fayetteville, which was organized in 1865 and now has a membership of about 75; Gun Spring, Philadelphia, Friendship, Chestnut Ridge, Mulberry, Antioch, one on Lane s Branch, and one at McAlister s chair factory.

The Hard Shell Baptist have small congregations–Mount Carmel and Sulphur Springs.

The Protestant Episcopal Church of Fayetteville is the only one of that denomination in the county. It was organized in 1882 and in 1883 was built the elegant little stone edifice which is used for worship.

The first organization of the United Presbyterian Church in Tennessee was Lebanon Church in this county. It was organized September 15, 1865, by Rev. A. S. Montgomery. The church building cost about $2,000 and the present membership is 145. Other organizations of that name are Hopewell and Pisgah.

The Missionary Baptists also have a number of congregations in the county. They have an organization at Fayetteville, but no church house.


Class photograph of a class at Old Ray School in Florence Alabama circa 1938…

shows just how we lived back in the day with boys in overalls and girls in dresses all ladylike.  No air conditioning. Discipline reigned in the classroom, if not then you got nothing at school compared to what you got at home.

Old Ray School class of circa 1938

  1. Wright, Ray Howard 16. Green, Bobby
  2. Redding, Hubert 17. Jones, Edward 
  3. Peden, Warren 18. Wright, L. C. “Dick” 
  4. Call, Charles 19. Wallace, Unknown
  5. McDougal, William 20. Dhority, Virginia
  6. Fowler, Glen 21. McIntyre, Camillia
  7. Lindsey, Quinon 22. Brewer, Unknown
  8. Terrell, Unknown 23. Thornton, Faye Dean
  9. Redding, Laverne 24. Murphy, Marie Walker
10. Wallace, Unknown 25. Cox, Virginia
11. Roberson, Unknown 26. Green?, Wilma
12. Walker, Mary Belle 27. Roberson, Unknown
13. Kimbrough, Helen 28. Walker, Louise, Teacher
14. number not present 29. White, Virginia 

Any corrections or missing names that can be added would be appreciated. Also, any information or further description of this long gone school and its occupants would be welcome.


A photo from the past…

This photo was taken in 1920. It was a family gathering to celebrate the birthday of Jim Mullins who was born 1845 in Lincoln County, Tennessee. His home was located in the community of Delrosa or Dellrose in Lincoln County.

Photo of the 75th birthday gathering to celebrate Jim Mullins birthday.


Conundrum…

that is what the brick walls in my Murray, Peebles, Gregory, Casey, and other family lines are even to this date. I was heartened this week by finding out about one of my Peebles family ancestors. It was staring me right in the face for several years, but I just did not connect the dots.

In past years I have lived where my Manus, Casey, and Peebles line, or factions of them, have lived. The most recent discovery was Sarah Elizabeth Reesanna Peebles. She was the youngest known daughter of my great-great-great-grandfather on my mother’s side, John M Peebles. Even with DNA testing and verifying that our John M Peebles and descendants were the offspring of Captain David Peebles and Elspet Mackie McKee Peebles there remains a brick wall.

Captain David Peebles was the progenitor of our line of Peebles in America. He was born in Peebles-shire  Scotland. Much to my chagrin, however, I have not connected a father to our John M Peebles, although he is believed to be Robert Peebles born circa 1750. DNA testing has verified that we are related to John Pinckney Peebles, Lewis Peebles, Jesse Peebles, Thomas H Peebles, Thomas Washington Peebles and his family from Mooresville in Limestone County, Alabama. We are also related to the Peebles line in Columbia, Tennessee.

Needless to say I was shocked to find Sarah Elizabeth Reesanna Peebles lived almost within walking distance of me when I lived in the Monrovia community, in Madison County. And she is buried at Fowlkes Cemetery on Capshaw Road in Monrovia. Also buried at Fowlkes Cemetery in Monrovia are: William Oliver Peoples Peebles born  24 Jul 1853 in Marion County, Alabama and died  24 Oct 1935 in Monrovia in Madison County, Alabama. He also had daughters who were buried in Fowlkes Cemetery in Monrovia, Madison County, Alabama. They were:  Evie Drucilla People  Holman 1895 – 1966; Velma Nettie Peoples 1896 – 1935; Exie Idora Meris Peoples Daniel 1899 – 1990.

William Oliver Peeples was the son of John Pinckney Peebles. John Pinckney Peebles was the son of Isham, who himself was the son of the elder Isham. And Isham the elder was the son of William (of Pitt) Peebles of North Carolina. The surname is variously spelled Peebles, Peeples, Peoples and possibly other variants. The surname that was the correct name for our forefathers was Peebles, towit Captain David Peebles. I think I feel very close to finding the clue to our John M Peebles’ parents; these are all proven lines though DNA, now just to connect the dots.

He and Sarah Elizabeth Shirley, 1861 – 1948,  had the following known children in addition to the ones listed above as buried in Fowlkes Cemetery: Martha Jerrity Peoples born 1882, John William Pinckney Peoples 1884 – 1976, Hassie Mary Lou Peoples 1886 – 1977, Arthur Clanton Peoples born 1889,  Lillie B Peoples 1891 – 1962, Evie Drucilla Peoples 1895 – 1966, Velma Nettie Peoples 1896 – 1935, Exie Idora Merdis Peoples 1899 – 1990, Bertha Elsie Irene Peoples 1902 – 1977.

Children buried in other cemeteries in Madison County, Alabama include: Sallie Sillie B Peoples and it appears that she died at the age of 102; Martha Jerrity Peoples Brown whose death date is not known but is likely buried in Marion County, Alabama; John William Pinckney Peoples 09 Nov 1884 in Lamar County, Alabama and died  04 May 1976 in Toney, Madison County, Alabama; Hassie Mary Lou Peoples Wisham born 27 Oct 1886 in Pelham, Shelby County, Alabama and died 08 Sep 1977 in Torrance, Los Angeles, California; Arthur Clanton Peoples born 18 Jun 1889 in Pikeville, Marion County, Alabama and likely died there; Lillie B Peoples Seymour born 28 Dec 1891 in Alabama and died 11 Mar 1962in either Flint, Morgan County, Alabama or Madison County, Alabama; and Bertha Elsie Irene Peoples Seymour, who may have also married a Hallmark. She was born  16 Jul 1902 in Tupelo, Mississippi (possibly) and died 12 Mar 1977 in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama.

Now the question begs to be answered why does Sarah Elizabeth Reesanna Peoples live in the same community as William Oliver Peoples? All the others spell their surname as Peebles, but not Sarah, or whoever documents her in records. That is a puzzle yet today. She was born in Giles County, Tennessee to John M Peebles and Elizabeth Octavia Laughlin McLaughlan. John M and Elizabeth Octavia were married in 1833 in Limestone County, Alabama as they lived just over the state line. Sarah Elizabeth Reesanna Peoples appears to never have married; or at least no record has been found as of yet. Her children bear the surname of Peoples, which is her maiden name. John M Peebles and Elizabeth Octavia Laughlin Peebles, 1813 – 1870, had the following known children: Emeline H Peebles Sylvester  born 1836; Anna Menefee Peebles born 1838; Katherine E Peebles born 1839; Priscilla Laughlin Peebles Lee 1840 – 1913; George Henry Peebles, Grandpa Dick, 1842 – 1928; William M Peebles 1842 – 1891; Mary Peebles born 1846; Wynona Satoka Toke or Nona Peebles Woodard 1859 – 1916; Sarah Elizabeth Reesanna Peebles Peoples 1861 – 1948; and Margaret Maggie Peebles 1870.

Some researchers believe that a Pleasant Mullins was the father of her children; but which Pleasant Mullins remains a mystery. And as of yet no marriage record has been found; but that is not at all unusual. Her known children are: James Franklin Pete Peoples 1873 – 1953 and Ella Birdie Peoples who first married a Malone and then a Beard, 1877-1960. James Franklin Peoples was sometimes referred to as Pete and sometimes referred to as Frank.

Ella Birdie Peoples Beard is buried at Maple Hill Cemetery in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama. The photos below are courtesy of Jim Bauman and are posted on Find-A-Grave on their respective memorial pages.

Birth: Dec. 2, 1877
Lincoln County
Tennessee, USA
Death: Oct. 18, 1960
Huntsville
Madison County
Alabama, USA

Daughter of Pleasant Mullins and Sarah Elizabeth (Sally)Peoples.Wife of William Thomas Malone,mother of Franklin Malone and Minnie Odell Malone Beard of this marriage. Wife of Benjamin Franklin Beard, mother of John Wesley Beard, Florence Beard Perry, William James Belton Beard, Beatrice Beard McBride, Eleanor Beard Taylor. Grandmother of Roy Belton Beard (Jim T.Bauman) and many others.

Jim T Bauman’s bio on Find-A-Grave is heartbreaking and heartwarming. It is reposted here: Jim T. Bauman (Roy Eli Belton Beard-birth name) I ,along with two older brothers, was taken away from our family during the middle of the depression years 1935 and were separated from one another.I was adopted at two or so years old. And was told only that I was adopted, but nothing more. When my adoptive Dad passed away in 1982, I learned from papers left by him for me who my biological family is.Found my oldest brother after a sixteen year search.It had been sixty five years that we had been apart. One of our first leads was through cemetery records where we locate my grandfather. Family means so much.That is why my wife Bonnie and I are trying to enter everyone that we can so anyone searching may find an ancestor that might be a lead to help them find their family also.

 


Photos from the past…

from one of my family lines that after a point in time is so mysterious; the Vandiver family. This photo is of John Robert Vandiver and wife Nellie Ann Vandiver and their children. The girl in the back is Flora E. Vandiver who married a Creel.

Enjoy.

Photo of John Robert Vandiver and family


Another Alabama girl kicks cancer’s butt…

with time to spare. Here is Leanna Reed Clemmons’ story on her breast cancer survival and her courageous fight every step of the way:

Waiting for the results of my biopsy seemed to take forever even though it was just one day. I knew by the way the technician looked at my breast as she was doing the mammogram the week before, there was a reason to be concerned.
The phone rang and Dr. Deselle confirmed it. Cancer. He immediately wanted to schedule me Photo of Jordan, Leanna and Mitch Clemmonsfor a lumpectomy within a matter of days however I wanted to get a 2nd opinion. I met with the same doctor that treated me for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma when I was 19 years old, and she referred me to Birmingham. I know a lot of people think very highly of Kirklin Clinic, however I am not one of those people. I feel like they dropped the ball with me. I spent a total of 5 weeks having tests done, biopsies, meetings with doctors, scans, etc.. and never got a treatment plan in place. Finally, I met with a team of doctors and got news that was worse than finding out I have cancer. I don’t think anyone is prepared to hear the words, “You have about 3 years left.” This news was given to me with my then 15 year old son sitting within feet away from me. The doctor stood at the door, hand on the doorknob, and hardly looked at me. No surgery. No treatment. Just wanted to send me home and (in their words) “keep me comfortable”.
The ride home, my mind was spinning. How could this be? I feel fine. I look fine. (other than the lump in my breast) I made a phone call to my lifelong best friend, Deana Wilcox, and she let me do nothing but cry uncontrollably in the phone to her. Still to this day, when I think about that phone call, my eyes fill with tears.
So, five weeks have passed at this point and this cancer is still inside me. Growing. My dad makes me an appointment in Nashville at Vanderbilt. They do their own series of tests (oh, and might I add that when I called Kirklin to have my records faxed to Vanderbilt, they said they had no record of me even being a patient of theirs. HUH? WHAT?). I met with Dr. Ingrid Mayer and she sat across from me and looked me dead in the eyes and said:
“Yes, you have an aggressive form of breast cancer. You are Stage IV Triple Negative. Its hard to treat this form since the cancer doesn’t feed off estrogen. Its not going to play nice. We’re not going to play nice either. We are going to fight this aggressively and you might only HAVE three years to live, but… my job is to keep you here long enough to spoil some grand-babies. I don’t believe in putting a time limit on patients. I could walk out of here today and get hit by a car. We just don’t know. What I want to do with you is treatment, surgery, reevaluate and if needed, there are clinical trials we can put you in. We will do everything medically possible to prolong your life, as long as your quality is good.”
That is all I wanted. Someone who was willing to try to save my life. I had only been married to my husband a few years. My son was only 15. I want to watch him graduate, settle into a career, get married, have children…. all the things parents expect to be a part of. So.. now at least there is a plan.
I had surgery to have a port inserted since chemo was a for sure thing. I had 6 months of chemotherapy. Taxol and Cisplatin. We traveled to Nashville once a week for my treatment. I handled it fairly well. It took more of an emotional toll than anything.. losing my hair was extremely difficult and something I struggle with even still. I still have neuropathy in my feet & toes and recently started having trouble with lymphedema, from having lymphnodes removed during my bilateral mastectomy.
Since I am Stage IV, I have to repeat PET scans every 6 weeks to make sure the spot on my spine and kidney are “behaving”. If anything changes with them, then its back on chemo I go. I am scheduled for reconstruction in January. It will be a big surgery. 10 hours. They are taking the tissue from my stomach area and moving it up to make boobs. Hello tummy tuck! (lol)
I have learned a lot over the past year. Most of all, that God has a plan for each of us and I have decided to make each day count.
I created a video of the past year, and also included some other things I have learned. I am always open to helping those that are faced with this horrible news, whether it is guiding them in the steps they need to take medically, or just an ear to listen. Cancer not only takes its toll on us physically, but emotionally as well.

*Those you think will be there for you, won’t.

*Those you didn’t think would be there for you, will.

*Chemo is no joke, and as well as I did with it, I still had some pretty rough days.

*I never knew how much my hair meant to me until I lost it.

*I never knew how important my breast were until they were gone.

*My husband is the most amazing person I know.. he has dealt with my ups and downs and I can’t imagine how hard this has all been on him.

*I’ve lost friends, but I’ve gained friends. Thankfully I have gained more than I lost.

*I’ve laughed as much as I’ve cried.

*It’s hard to watch everybody carry on “business as usual” when you’re struggling to make it through the day.

*No matter how many times you go, you never get used to the smell & taste of Heparin.

*I never know when I’ll wake up with numb toes, but I am thankful that at least I’m waking up.

*Very few things made me forget why I had to make a trip to Vanderbilt Breast Center.. but a “girls trip” was one of those things.

*Snuggles from a pit bull ( or TWO ) always make me feel better.

*Visits from my best friend, Deana, always make me feel better.

*No matter what kind of “friend drama” may be going on, at the end of the day, as long as I have my son and my husband- I’m good.

*Cancer can destroy so much of a person, but it can also show you what you’re made of. I found out I am a lot stronger than I thought I was.

*I haven’t given enough credit to my husband, who has taken over household responsibilities, made sure I stayed on schedule with my medications, pampered me when I probably needed a good smack in the mouth (lol), got in the shower with me while fully clothed to help move stupid drains out of the way after my surgery, held on during all my emotional roller-coaster days, and never had a negative word to say. In the midst of me falling apart, he was there to hold me together and never complained, but constantly told me how beautiful and strong I was when I felt just the opposite.

*While its rare for a teenager to think about someone other than themselves, Jordan tweaked his social life quite a bit so he could stay home with me when I didn’t feel good. I have done something right in raising that boy.. he has one of the most caring hearts I’ve ever seen.

*Its no fun to sleep in a recliner for a month.

*When your hair starts to grow, the wig has to go. (it starts to slip and slide… lol)

*Priorities change.

*Ports are a god-send.

*If I help one person, then getting on 10 people’s nerves is worth it.

*I’m thankful for the many texts, chats, phone calls, etc.. to and from people I’ve never met in person, but have an unbreakable bond with. Funny how you can be comfortable talking to someone you don’t know, only because they have experienced the same things you have.

*Its ok to cry, its ok to be scared.. but its not ok to give up.

Leanna Reed Clemmons, a Shoals Survivor

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibMdeh_5xG4&feature=youtu.be


Photos from the past…

are treasures and here is another one of Charles “Charlie” Dawson Letson who was born in Lawrence County, Alabama and then lived and died in Texas. This photo is dated 1910 because the youngest child was born in 1910 and is held in her mother’s arms in the photo. Florence Pauline Letson was born in 1910 and appears to be months old in the photograph. Please note that the girls have dolls, which was unusual in those days and times, but they have no shoes. Not wearing shoes in the summer time was common in those days.

Photo of Charley and Dennis Katey Talley Letson 1910 in Texas


Photos from the past…

from far distant places are just as precious. Charles Dawson Letson was the son of Robert George Green “Bob” Letson and his first wife Mary Elizabeth Grady Letson of Lawrence County. Many of their descendants still live in the Shoals area. But some went to points in the west.

Their son Charlie went to different points in Texas. He was in Texas prior to 1903 and his first marriage. Charlie was born 3 February 1879 in Lawrence County, Alabama and died in 1950 in Pecan Gap, Delta County, Texas. Charlie had children by two wives, both , marriages took place in Texas. This is a photo of him as a cowboy circa 1900. He was a handsome man and cowboy.

Photo of Charles Dawson Letson


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